MARITAL STRESS-RELATED CHALLENGES AS PREDICTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE AMONG FEMALE TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE

MARITAL STRESS-RELATED CHALLENGES AS PREDICTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE AMONG FEMALE TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE

MARITAL STRESS-RELATED CHALLENGES AS PREDICTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE AMONG FEMALE TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE

 

BY

 

ATIATOBE, MISHAEL ASHIBENDE

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING, FACULTY OF EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF PORTHARCOURT

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AND

 

PROF.  BETTY-RUTH NGOZI IRULOH

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING, FACULTY OF EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF PORTHARCOURT

 

ABSTRACT

The study focused on marital stress-related challenges as predictors of occupational performance among female married teachers in Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers East Senatorial District. Four objectives,fourresearch questions and four corresponding null hypotheses guided the study. Five Hundred (500) female married teachers constituted the sample for the study. Population for the study is all the 2,246 female married teachers, in all the Government-owned 102 Senior Secondary Schools in the River East Senatorial District. The study utilized the correlational research design. “Marital Stress-Related Challenges Scale” and the “Occupational Performance Scale” were used for data collection. Face and content validities were ensured by experts in relevant areas. Convergent validation process was used to establish the validity of theinstruments and the correlation indices realized was 0.75 and 0.69 for Marital Stress–Related Challenges Scale and Occupational Performance Scale respectively. Cronbach Alpha was used in determining reliability co-efficient of 0.91 for Marital Stress-Related Challenges Scale and 0.84 for Occupational Performance Scale.  Simple regression and one-way Analysis of Variance were used for data analysis.Findings showed that role conflicts (P=0.037<0.05), as well as all the variables jointly taken (P=0.031<0.05) had significant predictive power on occupational performance of female married teachers. On the contrary, unrealistic expectations (P=0.77>0.05) did not significantly predict occupational performance of the female married teachers. It was recommended among others thatfor effective job performance teachers in all secondary schools in Nigeria should among other things be provided with the needed personal, financial and structural facilities. It was as well suggested that other researchers should carryout similar research using other variables in other senatorial district in Rivers State and beyond.

Key words: Marital Stress, Occupational Performance, Unrealistic Expectations and Role Conflict.

Introduction

Teaching at the secondary school level is for both the male and female gender. It is concerned with the proper formation of individual character through organized, sequential and planned development of students’ potential in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. 

In most developing nations, the teachers’ working conditions are dehumanizing when compared to workers in some other professions, not until recently, teaching in Nigeria was regarded as a profession for the poor and wretched.  Teachers often were seen as “charitable workers”, whose rewards are in heaven. Most bachelors, who are teachers found it difficult to marry because some spinsters saw them as not capable of running a home and taking care of their financial needs (Uzoeshi, 2004).

In every classroom, teachers first and foremost are faced with the challenges of instantly bringing the behaviours of these learners to what is morally and socially acceptable both to the teacher in the classroom, the school and the society generally. It’s accepted universally that teachers are the main determinants of quality education. If teachers in any nation are not fully committed to their occupation, with motivation and provision of tools from their employers the country is doomed.

In recent developments especially in teaching and learning, there is an observed upsurge of job opportunities for women.  This increasing number of women in the teaching profession is now a global phenomenon.  Historically, it was not so, due to cultural orientations climaxing in sex stereotyping as envisioned in the continents of Africa where women were seen as the nurturers and homemakers, engaging in menial and low- paying jobs like cooks, housemaids, nannies and traditional female jobs such as nursing, book keeping, telephone operating etc.

In teaching, males and females are involved.  But most employers complain about the occupational performance of some married female teachers.  Many also tend to express some misconceptions about the occupational performance of married women in teaching field. In area like;

  1. Attendance to school,
  2. Early arrival to school,
  3. Timely submission of students results,
  4. Supervision of students etc.

The issue of occupational performance of married female teachers in senior secondary school is still shrouded in mystery and a concern to many scholars including the researchers.  It is on this light that the researchers see the need to address this issue in a definite manner, if for nothing else, at least for the goal of identifying factors that may predict the occupational performance among female married teachers.

Marital stress according to Beehr and Newman (1978) is a condition whereby marriage related factors interact with the individual to change (disrupt or enhance) his or her psychological conditions such that the person (mind or body) is forced to deviate from normal functioning.  When stress becomes too much and persistent in a human, it may end up causing severe damage on the psychological and physiological well-being of the person.  Culminating into anxiety, frustration, threat, conflict and tension, and these can negatively affect human performance.

One of the most important relationships between a man and woman is marriage which involves emotional and legal commitment to each other in adult life.  Marriage is a solid bond between a man and a woman. Okujagu, (1993) sees marriage as the approved pattern whereby two persons (male and female) establish a family.  Marriage is a unique commitment in the lives of men and women which they are expected to enjoy happiness, provision, love, protection, procreation and respect in the society.  Marriage from the researchers’ view is a contract which spells out the reciprocal rights and obligations between the spouse and future children with expectations.  Some of the expectations may turn to be realistic while others may be unrealistic.

Occupational performance among teachers from the researchers’ perspective refers to the level of workers efficiency in their job.  It also means producing the result that is needed or intended while in employment in the schools.  That is to say that achieving desired goal(s) of the teaching profession is by performing the duties ascribed to them, to the extent that they could be approved as performing.  The occupational performance of teachers has to do with competence, that involves their ability to do something well or achieve a desired result without wasting energy and effort (Thompson, 2006).  Also occupational performance was conceived as the consequences of certain personality trait or characteristics possessed by the individual, in his place of work or assigned duties.  Which is mainly depending on the climate the individual may create and maintained and also mastery of his repertoire of competences that is professionally deploy.

Role conflict among female married teachers can be said to be of an inter role conflict in which role pressures from work and family domains become an obstacle to employees occupational performance, Role conflict, arises when pressures from work become incompatible with those from family domains (Greehaus and Beutell, 1985).  Role conflict arises when employees extend their efforts in satisfying their work demands at the expenses of their family demands or vice-versa (Calson et al 1985).

            Although role conflict is a challenge for women and men in all career paths, not much work has been done to emphasize significantly its effect on the occupational performance of females in the teaching profession in Nigeria.  With responsibilities for multiple roles in a patriarchal society such as Nigeria, female married teachers are more likely than others to experience role conflicts.

Female married teachers serve as the main doers of most activities done at home, such as taking care of the house and of the children, and at the same time they also become an employee (Chopur et al; 2009. Erkal et al; 2007, MacDonald, Plums and Lethbridge, 2008, Marshall, in Chopur, 2011).

With responsibilities for multiple roles Yank and Hawkins (2004) posited that female married employees are more likely than men to experience inter role conflict involving incompatible demand. Bryon, (2005) explained that conflict occurring between ones occupation and family responsibilities is bi-directional, indicating that one could experience occupation to family role conflict, while at the same time experience family to occupation role conflicts.  Every working female married teacher, irrespective of her status almost retains the primary responsibility for household labour.

Combining work with marriage is like living two lives in one.  If a woman works, she is not absolved of her household chores and responsibility.  If both husband and wife return from work, it is still expected that the wife will make him a good cup of tea, serve and later on cook a nice dinner for the family. This is because fathers are seen as the provider and the protector while we see the women as the wives, cooks and cleaners.

It is a common observation that the older people fail to function as effectively as the younger persons at certain task.  This is mainly attributed to age (Gelderblom, 2006).  The body of the older persons is not that much strong as the younger ones to perform certain tasks at the same efficiency as the youngsters. 

            There are some notable differences between the older and younger people psychologically as well.  At certain tasks the older people can perform better than the younger employees due to the experience factor, for example the older people can give better advises against the younger ones.

            The performance of the individuals will gradually deteriorate or improve with age depending upon their work (Warr, 1994).  Among other personal characteristics, younger people exhibit more resilience or the ability to bounce back from stress than older people.

            Nowadays, the married and unmarried women are treated equally in almost all the areas of life, and organizations like schools are not an exception. Married and unmarried couples compete for job positions.  Some studies prove that performance decreases with age while others prove that through work, ability seems to be decreasing with age, (Salthouse& Maurer 1996).  This is due to the fact that most professions have no simple or concise way of measuring individual productivity or occupational performance (Gelderblom 2006) and this makes it difficult to establish the exact effects of age on occupational performance.

            The patterns of age changes in occupational performance vary according to occupational characteristics.  If the job requires quick reactions or heavy physical work, age may be a disadvantage, even as early as the thirties (WHO, 1993).  If experience or expertise could improve the performance of job – related task, age becomes an advantage throughout the work life (Warr. 1994).

            Some studies indicate that the performance decline starts earlier in physical strenuous occupation than in mentally demanding occupations (Capanni et al 2005).The researchers are worried that female married teachers saddled with some responsibilities at home with the onerous task of:

  • Teaching
  • Supervision
  • Attending /Punctuality to school
  • Attending meetings, seminars, workshops, conferences etc.
  • Conducting test and exam
  • Submission of students results within stipulated time 
  • Mentoring 
  • Research with attendant marital factors

Among which are pregnancy, child bearing culminating into changes in body chemistry, attending to sick child and other family responsibilities. Societal prejudices, overt or covert discrimination and expectations from employers etc. Do experienced conflicts, clashes etc. That has affected their occupational performance in one way or the other leading to loss of opportunities for promotion and appointments.  

Due to the urgent need, this study therefore sought to find out if role conflicts, unrealistic expectations and age are relevant in explaining the occupational performance of female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District. Efforts to provide answers to this debacle led to the conduct of this study.

             In specific terms, the study objectives were to:

  1. determine the extent role conflict predict female married teachers’ occupational performance. In Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers East Senatorial District
  2. ascertain the extent unrealistic expectation predict female married teachers’ occupational performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers East Senatorial District
  3. determine and ascertain the extent role conflict and unrealistic expectations jointly taken predict female married teachers’ occupational performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers East Senatorial District
  4. examine the influence of age on female married teachers’ occupational performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers East Senatorial District

The following research questions were answered to obtain the results of the study.

  1. To what extent does role conflict predict female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance?
  2. To what extent does unrealistic expectation predict female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance?
  3. To what extent does role conflict and unrealistic expectations jointly taken predict female married senior secondary school teachers occupational performance?
  4. To what extent does difference in age influence female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance?  

The following null hypotheses testable at 0.05 alpha level guided the study.

  1. Role conflict does not have any significant prediction on female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance in Rivers East Senatorial District
  2. Unrealistic expectations do not have any significant prediction on female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance in Rivers East Senatorial District
  3. Role conflict and unrealistic expectations jointly taken do not significantly predict occupational performance among female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District.
  4. Age difference does not have any significant influence on female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance. In Rivers East Senatorial District

 

The study utilized the correlational research design. The population of this study consisted of all 2,246 senior secondary schools female married teachers in the government owned schools in Rivers East Senatorial District. Five Hundred (500) female married teachers from 20 public senior secondary schools in Port-Harcourt and Obio-Akpor LGA of Rivers East Senatorial District were used as the study sample. Proportionate sampling technique was used in drawing certain number of female married teachers from each school.

Two researchers made instruments tagged “Marital Stress–Related Challenges Scale” (MSRCS) with 40 items and “Occupational Performance Scale” (OPS) with 20 items was used for data collection. To determine the cronbach alpha reliability estimate, the instrument was pilot tested using (40) female married senior secondary schools teachers who did not form part of the study. Face and content validity were established for the instrument. Experts in relevant areas assisted the researchers to validate the instrument. All the necessary corrections were effected and the instrument was adjudged valid for use.

Content validity was determined using convergent validation process. The correlation indices realized was 0.75and 0.69.While the reliability co-efficient was 0.91 and 0.84 for “Marital Stress-Related Challenges Scale” and “Occupational Performance Scale” respectively. The instrument was administered on the teachers and was collected immediately. The researchers analyzed the data generated using the simple regression method, while the null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level using the Anova and T-test associated with regression.

                          Since the hypotheses were derived directly from the research questions, the data and the results of each research question and its corresponding hypothesis are presented together. 

Research Question One: To what extent does role conflict predict female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance in Rivers East Senatorial District?  

Hypothesis One:  Role conflict does not have any significant prediction on female married senior secondary school teachers’ occupational performance in Rivers East Senatorial District.

Table 1: Simple regression of role conflict as predictor of occupational performance among female married senior secondary school teachers in Rivers East Senatorial District

R                     R2                    adj  R2             unstd B

0.093               0.009               0.007               0.177

                                                                                    Summary

                        Sum of sq        df        mean sq           f           ά          sig        Result

Regression      510.36             1          510.36                                                 Significant Residual    58407.75            498      117.29             4.35     0.05     0.037   Reject HoTotal            58918.11         499                                         

 

From the table above, R= 0.093, R2 = 0.009, adjusted R2 = 0.007 while the unstandardized B value is 0.117.  From the R2 value, role conflicts have a predictive power of 0.9% on female married teachers’ occupational performance.  It is also shown from the unstandardized B value that for every additional increase or decrease in the values of role conflict, there is a corresponding 0.177 unit increase or decrease in their values of occupational performance. 

The summary shows calculated F of 4.35 and significant value of 0.037.  Hence, since significant (P=0.037<0.05) is less than 0.05 alpha. The null hypothesis is rejected meaning that the occupational performance of female married teacher is significantly predicted by role conflicts.

Research questions two:  To what extent does unrealistic expectation predict female married teacher occupational performance in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District?

Hypothesis two:  Unrealistic expectation does not have any significant prediction on female married senior secondary school teachers in Rivers East Senatorial District. 

Table 2: Simple regression of unrealistic expectations as predictor of occupational performance among female married senior secondary school teachers in River East Senatorial District

R                      R2adj R2unstd.B

0.013               0.000        -0.002       0.025

 

Summary

 

Regression

Residual

Total

sum of sqdfmean sqfά          sig              Result

10.32            1        10.32

Insignificant

Retain Ho

58907.79      498     118.29        0.009       0.05        0.77

58918.112    499

       

 

From the table above,it is seen that R=0.013, R2=0.000, adjusted R2=0.002 while Unstandardized B= 0.025.  From the R2 value, it shows that unrealistic expectations have not prediction at all (0%) on occupational performance of married female teachers.  The unstandardized B also showed that for every increase in the values of unrealistic expectation, there will be a corresponding increased in the value occupational performance and vice versa. Calculated F= 0.009 while significant value is 0.77.  Therefore, since sig (p=0.77 > 0.05) is higher than the alpha of 0.05, the null hypothesis is retained. That means that actually the occupational performance of female married teachers in senior secondary school in the state is not significantly predicted by their unrealistic expectation.

Research Question Three:  To what extent does role conflict and unrealistic expectation jointly taken predict occupational performance among female married teachers’ in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District?

Hypothesis Three:  Role conflict and unrealistic expectations jointly taken do not significantly predict occupational performance among female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District.

 

Table 3: Simple regression of all the variables jointly taken as predictors of occupational performance among female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District

 

R                     R2adj           R2

0.145              0.021          0.013

Summary

sum of sqdfmean sqfά         sig               Result

Regression    1246.98         4           311.75

   Significant

   Reject Ho

Residual

Total

 57671.13

58918.112

 595

 499

116.51

   2.68          0.05

 

0.031

             

 

From the table above, it is seen that R=0.145, R2 = 0.021, while the adjusted R2 = 0.013.  From the R2 values, it is clear that all the variables jointly taken have a predictive power of about 2.1% on occupational performance of female married teachers.  Calculated F value = 2.68 while the significant value is 0.031. Therefore, since significant (P=0.031<0.05) is less than 0.05 alpha level, the null hypothesis is rejected.  This means that jointly taken all the variables has significant predictive power on occupational performance among female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District.

Research Questions Four:  To what extent does difference in age influence occupational performance of female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District?

Hypothesis Four:  Age difference does not have any significant influence on female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District. 

 

Std.D

X

Table 4: One way Analysis of variance of the Influence of Age on Occupational Performance among Female Married Senior Secondary Schools Teachers in Rivers East Senatorial District

 

 

9.33

12.61

9.92

11.03

10.9153.51

500

52.62

56.37

55.26

50.01

53.51

500

N

47

71

224

158

500

500

25-29

30-34

35-39

40 & above

Total

 

Age                      

 

25-29̅̅

30-34

35-39

40 & above

Total

 

 

 

Summary

sum of sqdfmean sq     f                                                 

 

   sig           Result

 

113.19

56.37

55.26

50.01

53.51

500

9.52

56.37

55.26

50.01

53.51

500

Between Group        3234.41        3               1078.14

 

 

 Reject Ho

56.37

55.26

50.01

53.51

500

0.000

56.37

55.26

50.01

53.51

500

                  Significant

 

Within group           56144.54       496                     

 

Total                        59378.95       499

 

     

The table above showed that female teachers within the ages of 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and 40 and above were 47, 71, 224 and 158 respectively, their mean scores on occupational performance were 52.62, 56.37, 55.26 and 50.01 respectively.  From the mean score, it is clear that female married teachers within the ages of 30-34, perform better in their occupation.  This is followed by those between the ages of 35-39, then by those between ages 25-29 and lastly by those who are within 40 years and above.  Calculated F was 9.52 while the significant value is 0.000.Therefore, since the significant value (P=0.000<0.05) is less than the alpha level of 0.05, the null hypothesis was rejected meaning that there is actually a significant difference in the occupational performance of female married teachers in the various age groups in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District .

Table 5: Scheffe Post Hoc multiple comparison between the age groups

AgesMean DiffSigRemarks

25 – 29 & 30 – 34            3.75                          0.320                       Insignificant

25 – 29  & 35 – 39            2.64                         0.49                        Insignificant

 

30 – 34 & 35 – 39             1.11                         0.90                        Insignificant

30 – 34 & 40 & above      6.35                         0.001                   Significant

35 – 39 & 40 & above      5.25                         0.000                      Significant

 

 

25 – 29 & 40 & above      2.60                         0.54                        Insignificant

 

 

 

 

 

The table above showed Post Hoc multiple comparisons between the various age groups.  From the table, it is clear that the mean difference between the female teachers between the ages 25-29 and 30-34, 25-29 and 35-39, 25-29 and 40 years and above, 30-34 and 35-39 years were all insignificant with a clear mean difference.  On the other hand those within the age group of 30-34 and 40 years and above as well as those within 35-39 and 40 years and above showed significant mean difference in their performance.

Discussion of Findings  

From research finding in table 1 it was revealed that role conflict is a significant predictor of occupational performance among female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District. This means that female teachers experience a clash of roles and responsibilities in their work placesand thisdetermine or predict their level of occupational performance. In clear terms, where the responsibilities of each employees are not specifically defined or assigned to him, this would lead to encroachment into someone else duties, and this would certainly affect the way and manner such individuals carry out their job.  The finding here came because employees are basically sensitive to their job specification and any deviation or conflict on that may determine their performance on it.  In this case, it could be said that all the female married teachers do experienced role ambiguity, confusion and conflict in their occupational performance.  

Furthermore, role conflict did not just arise only from the place of work, it is observed even at home.  There are conflicts between the husband and wife on who do what and when.  If this be the case, it is certain through the findings that such conflict may creep into the wives’ occupational performance at work place.  Where there is quarrel at home concerning what is done and what is not done either properly or improperly, this can determine how happy and settled the wives are at work and consequently will affect their level of performance. The study of Zhaoli (2001) supports the present study when it submitted that other stressors like work family conflicts as well as negative job search experience were related to distress of individual, both the employed and unemployed individuals.

From the finding on table 2 it is reported that unrealistic expectations do not predict significantly the occupational performance of female married teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers East Senatorial District. This means that female teachers’ performance does not depend on the level of home, personal and work expectations.  The researchers must quickly stress that this is quite surprising to them.  From our review, unrealistic expectations are those unmet needs an employee needs in order to successfully carry-out their job, achieving the desired results and the goals. In the light of the present study unrealistic expectation of the female married teachers include among others provision of certain anticipated facilities or amenities they need in order to carry-out their job, hence, when these things are not provided either as promised or expected, the teacher may likely lost their ability to perform better with negative effects on both the worker and organization.

The question is why would this result show an insignificant relationship?  This could be because female married teachers have learnt over the years to adjust to the present insensitivities of government towards the provision of basic needs to teacher.  Hence, this may not really be a problem to them in the course of carrying out their responsibility. Achalu (2000) reported finding contrary to the present one when he submitted that poor funding, lack of adequate teaching and research facilities, poor job working conditions and unfavourable heavy workloads.  Time pressure, overcrowded classes, low salaries among others, are cause of work stress which can lead to poor occupational performance among teachers. 

From the research finding in table 3, it is also realized that all the variables jointly taken do have significant predictions on female married teachers ‘occupational performance. What this means is that in situation where there is a clash of roles among the teachers and where their expectations and that of their employer are not met there will be a corresponding under performance and vice versa.

From research finding four, age was found to make a significant difference in the occupational performance of female married teachers.  What this finding means is that the way in which female married teachers in the various age groups perform differs. 

From the mean scores reported, it is clear that female married teachers within the age range of 30-34 perform significantly better.  This is followed by those who are within the age range of 35-39.  It is also observed that those who are older (40 years and above) have the lowest mean.  This could be because of the energetic characteristic prevalent in the younger married teachers.  On the other hand, those that are (25-29) years underperform seemly because of their inexperience that may override their youthful strength.  Those who are older will find it difficult to wake up, prepare the house and come to work compared to those who are far younger.  Even when they could, they will find it difficult combining the office demand, some will experience fatigue, some will be depressed etc.  Just like the study of Dimkpa (2010) noted, there is a statistical significant difference among women of various age groups in their perception of family stress.  Joyce (2014) reported significant influence of age among other factors on occupational performance of family couples. 

            Furthermore, the multiple comparison showed that except for comparison between ages 30-34 and 40 and above as well as 35-39 and 40 and above, there was no significant difference in interaction on the performance of the women.  This means that the way and manner married female teacher within the ages of 25-29 and 30-34, 25-29 and 35-39, 25 – 29 and 40 and above as well as  between 30-34 and 35-39 will perform in their occupation is not significantly different when compared.

Conclusions

It was concluded that role conflicts, significantly affects the occupational performance of workers, while unrealistic expectation was realized to be an insignificant predictor of occupational performance of worker and there was a significant difference in the occupational performance of female married teachers in Rivers East Senatorial District between their various age group. There is an urgent need for the introduction and implementation of sound policy backed by complimentary innovations and provision of all round functional, organized and well established guidance counselling units in schools in Nigeria. Exclusively manned by commensurate number(s) of specially trained guidance counsellors who will best handle the needs and problems of these workers for improve effective, productive and rewarding experience.  

Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, it is the interest of the researcher to recommend that:

  1. It is necessary that, consistent seminars, workshops, symposia, and other orientation programs for the teachers be organize by relevant authorities with themes on the management of role conflict in a given organization etc.
  2. For effective job performance, teachers in all secondary schools in Nigeria. Should be provided with the needed personal, financial and structural facilities among others.
  3. Interventions from the government in way of early payment of living wage, for the teachers and social support from social workers and relevant non-governmental organizations can go a long way in helping the teachers and the organization achieve their personal and occupational expectations. 

      Contributions to Knowledge

1.         It exposes the fact that deliberate and sincere motivation of teachers by the authority through giving of awards, free or subsidized health care, living wage etc, enhance the teachers’ occupational performance.  

2.         Exposures of teachers to consistent seminars, workshops and other orientation programs help improve the way female married teachers manage their occupation and home to achieve optimum occupational performance. 

 

 

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