Department of Geology

Department of Geology

Name of Department:                          

Department of Geology

Name of Ag. Head Of Department:    

Dr. J. I. Nwosu

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The Department of Geology was established in 1976 to expose the students to all aspects of training in theoretical, practical and field geology. Geology as a discipline offers a lot of challenges to those undertaking University training in the field. 
Historical Background
The Department of Geology formally commenced in 1977 as one of the three major departments in the then School of Physical Sciences, with the other departments being Physics and Mathematics.  On October 1st 1983, the three Schools of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences were merged to form the Faculty of Science with eight departments viz: Animal and Environmental Biology, Biochemistry, Geology, Mathematics/Computers Science/Statistics, Microbiology, Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Physics, Plant Science and Biotechnology. This Faculty of Science was elevated to the status of the College of Natural and Applied Science in December 2012, with three faculties, namely Faculty of Biological Science, Faculty of Chemical Science and Faculty of Physical Science and Information Technology. Geology Department was one of the four Departments in the Faculty of Physical Science and Information Technology, which is made up of Department of Computer Science, Department of Geology, Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics/Statistics. 
The National Universities Commission prescribes Benchmark Minimum Academic Standards (BMAS) for both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in all Nigerian Universities and based on this, the Senate of the University approves the courses offered by each Department. The Department offers both undergraduate training programmes through teaching and research and renders professional support services to corporate bodies within and outside Nigeria. These courses are geared towards preparing and equipping the students to wards a challenging and satisfying profession. At the end of the programme, graduates of our programmes can look forward to getting a wide range of job opportunities in public and private sectors or be self employed. The Department is endowed with high caliber of dedicated professionals, whose experiences cut across different endeavours of life. Their major objective is to impart knowledge to the students, making sure that the formative years are sound. The student is expected to avail himself/herself of such great opportunity of tapping from these great scholars to be able to form his/her own opinions concerning life. The Department provides unique and conducive learning/research environment that enables the student to excel and mould himself/herself into maturity. 
Professional activities of Geologists
Geology is the science that studies the earth's structure, its origin, evolution and the processes that have shaped it from inception till date. The geologist explores the Earth's interior and makes discoveries not only during expeditions to distant regions or "in the Field", but also in, laboratories located in villages and cities. It is the geologists that can decipher the language of solidified rocks and have insight into the modes of their origin, the physico-geographical environments that dominated in these regions in the past. Advances in geology have allowed the geologist to correctly figure out the time and mode of origin of our planet as well as its location in space; to trace the evolution of its interior and surface, including its atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere; to disclose changes in the chemical and mineral compositions of the Earth' crust and the planet as a whole. This involves a constant monitoring through satellites. The work of professional geologist is endless. It is a mixture of activities that involve the process of observation, planning, analysis, calculation, interpretation and decision making.
The major specialties in Geology (in alphabetical order) are;
Aerogeology / Remote sensing 
Economic Geology 
Engineering Geology 
Environmental Geology 
Marine Geology 
Mining Geology 
Paleontology / Palynology
Petroleum Geology 
Physical Geology 
Structural Geology  
To specialize in any of these fields, one needs to obtain a formal training to obtain a degree, postgraduate diploma, M.Sc., Ph.D or informal training/experience from several years of professional practice in the industry.
The philosophy of the Department is to ensure that our students and graduates have a clear knowledge and understanding of the role and importance of geology in the society, since the foundation of the earth and all resources therein are found on or in the earth.
The objectives of the degree programme in geology are: 
a. To instill in students a sense of enthusiasm for geology, an appreciation of its application and relevance in the solution of different societal development problems, and to involve them in an intellectually stimulating and satisfying experience of learning and studying. 
b. To provide student with a broad and balance foundation of geology knowledge and practical skills.
c. To develop in students the ability to apply their geological knowledge and skills to the solution of theoretical and practical problems in geology. 
d. To develop in students, a range of transferable skills and attitudes that are of value in geological and non-geological employment.
e. To provide students with a knowledge and skills base from which they can proceed to further in specialized areas of geology or multi-disciplinary areas involving geology.
f. To generate in students an appreciation of the importance of geology in an industrial, economic, environmental, technology and social development. 
g. To expose students to new developments and advances in technology, policy and process; and new concepts and practices in education for sustainable development
a. Regime of subject knowledge 
 The content, nature and organization of courses in the department are designed to ensure that students become conversant with the following main aspects of geology.
a. Major aspects of geological terminology, nomenclature, conventions, units and a sound understanding of the fundamental concepts in geology.
b. The major groups of rocks and their characteristic features 
c. Earth history and the concept of time in geology 
d. Physical geology and the practical identification of common rock forming minerals and fossils.
e. Crystallography, mineralogy and the principles and procedures of identifying minerals using the polarizing microscope.
f. Principles and techniques of field geology and the interpretation of topographic and geologic maps.
g. Systematic paleontology covering the morphology, evolution, identification of major animal phyla including their stratigraphic and paleoecology distributions. 
h. The morphology and classification of pollens and spores and their applications in stratigraphic and paleo environmental studies 
i. The characteristics of igneous and metamorphic rock and the geological processes which gave rise to them 
j. The characteristic features of sedimentary rocks including their structures and composition and the recognition of sedimentary environments from the rock records 
k. The principles and concepts of stratigraphy and their application in sedimentary basin analysis
l. The principles and processes of formation of mineral deposits and techniques for their evaluation.
m. Petroleum geology and the nature of source and reservoir rocks and hydrocarbon traps and evaluation of petroleum potential of a sedimentary basin
n. Applications of the physical and chemical properties of rocks in the design of exploration techniques, in the search for groundwater, mineral deposits, hydrocarbon and engineering foundation studies. 
o. An appreciation of the value of fieldwork in geology, which is practicalized by field training Programmes and skills acquisition through industrial attachment
p. Awareness of major issues currently at the frontiers of geological research and development.
b. Competencies and skills
Our undergraduate students are trained to develop a wide range of different abilities and skills. These are divided into three broad categories as follows: 
Geology-related cognitive abilities   
Geology-related cognitive skills
Geology-related practical skills 
Graduates of our undergraduate programme are trained to have the ability to apply knowledge and skills to solving theoretical and practical problems in the exploration and exploitation of natural earth resources and also be able to carry out research in Geosciences. 
a) Academic and non-Academic Staff 
b) Laboratories and Class Rooms
c) Workstation
d) Academic and Administrative Equipment 
e) Library and Information Resources 
There are opportunities to work in the following sectors of the economy:
Petroleum Industry
Solid mineral sector
Water drilling companies / agencies
Government agencies / parastatals 
There is an increasing awareness in the protection of the environment and this has also created more employment opportunities in the environmental sector.
Admission Requirement
The basic admission requirements of the university are:
1. Five credits in the Senior Secondary Certificate, West African School Certificate/General Certificate of Education/NECO/ in English Language, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry and Biology obtained at not more than two sittings.  There is  no admission by direct entry into the second year of the degree programme.           
2. (i) A score in the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) conducted by the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board, not below the national minimum cut-off point for the particular year in question.  The UTME subjects are English Language, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.
(ii) A score in the Post-UTME Screening Exercise conducted by the University not below the JAMB national minimum cut-off for the particular year in question.
Acceptable score in the Pre-degree (Basic) programme in addition to a score in the current UTME not below JAMB national minimum cut-off point for the particular year in question
Mode of Study
The mode of study for the B.Sc. Geology programme is Full time
Options in the Programme / Areas of Specialization
We do not run options at the undergraduate level, thus we graduate our students with B.Sc. Geology at the end of the study.
Duration of Study
Four years minimum to six years maximum
Course Content / Framework for Degree Structure
The general framework for the degree structure is as follows:
1st Year 2nd Year
General Studies Courses General Studies Courses
Foundation Courses Foundation Courses
Major courses Major Courses
Community Service course
3rd Year 4th Year
1 General Studies Course 1 General Studies Course
 Major Courses Major Courses
 Industrial Training 1 Seminar Course 
1 Project Course
5th Year 6th Year
All Carry Over Courses All Carry Over Courses
For purposes of teaching and examination, the academic year is divided into two semesters, each of approximately sixteen weeks of teaching.
Instruction shall be by courses, by the respective course lecturers, tutorial instructors and laboratory attendants.
The unit of credit for a course is the credit unit, one credit unit being when a class meets for one hour every week for one semester in a lecture or tutorial, or for 3 hours every week in practicals in the laboratory, workshop or field.
Each course carries 1 to 6 credit units and its duration is normally one semester.
The normal course load for a full-time student is 15 to 24 credit units per semester.  No student is permitted to register for less than 15 or more than 24 credit units in any semester. 
Every course shall be continuously assessed, and examined at the end of the semester in which it is given.
Re-sit of examinations are not permitted. The student is to carry over the course to the next appropriate semester with exception of year three (3) Second semester which is meant for the students Industrial Training only. Any examinations taken during this time by any student is null and void and such results will not be used by the department and the student will carry over the course at the appropriate semester.
Students are required to obtain a minimum of 75% attendance at lectures/tutorials and or laboratory/practicals to be eligible for examination in the courses.
Graduation Requirements
Students will normally graduate on the programme in the Department at the time they were admitted into the Department, except Senate directs otherwise.  
The pass mark for all courses is 40%
When re-registering failed courses, students must not exceed the maximum number of 24 credit units for one semester.  Any course(s) which would cause the maximum to be exceeded must be deferred to the following academic year.
Students are not allowed to repeat a course which they have passed
It is mandatory that a student presents and defends his/her project to earn a degree.
Students shall be allowed to graduate with a maximum of any two (2) failed courses, provided these are not Research Projects, Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), GES Courses, Field work Courses, Seminar and Community Service Course as they cannot be waived, after completing the approved programme of study in the department, and after having attempted all courses which the programme specifies between 4 years minimum to 6 years maximum.
Pass grade(s) shall replace fail grade(s) and the pass grade(s) shall be used to compute the CGPA.  The maximum grade to be earned in respect of replacement of fail grade with a Pass grade is “C”
A total number of 141 units shall be used in the computation of a student’s degree result at the completion of his/her study.
The period for normal registration is the first three weeks of each academic year, excluding the orientation week.
The period for late registration is the fourth and fifth weeks of the first semester of the academic year.  Late registration will attract a surcharge.
The Head of Department/Academic Adviser will guide the student on the courses to register. 
Students are to re-register all previously failed courses in, before any other course for the semester and the total credit units registered should not be less than 15 nor more than 24 per semester. 
The final registration of courses is online, thereafter; the student should submit a copy of his/her course registration print-out to his/her Head of Department.
Any student who fails to pay his/her school charges and register his/her courses online in a session loses his/her studentship for that session.  
Students are not allowed to sit for examinations in courses for which they have not previously registered. Such actions are fraudulent and culprits will be appropriately disciplined.
Only results of bona-fide students (that is those who paid their school charges and registered their courses online will be published online).
A list of students registered for each course will be displayed for one week immediately after the close of registration for necessary corrections, after which the list becomes the authentic register for the course examination.
Students are encouraged to join the departmental, ethnic, social, religious and any relevant academic associations, and be active and pay the dues. Such registrations have no relationship at all with departmental or faculty or course registration.
Application for adding or dropping a course must be made on the prescribed ADD/DROP Form after obtaining the approval of the Head of Department, not later than four weeks before the examination in each semester.  Any change of course made by altering the hard copy of the course registration form will be null and void. Ask for the form from the faculty officer’s office.
GES 100.1 Communication Skill in English (3)
The course seeks to develop in the students a well-informed attitude to the English Language and to equip them with the knowledge of English communication and study skill that will facilitate their work in the University and beyond.
GES 102.1 Introduction to Logic & Philosophy (2)
A brief survey of the scope, notions, branches and problems of philosophy symbolic logic, specific symbols in symbolic logic. Conjunction. Affirmation, negation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statements. Law of thought. The method of deduction, using rule of inference and bi-conditions. Quantitative theory.
CHM 130.1 General Chemistry (3)
Basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist’s point of view. A broadly based course suitable for students from various schools as well as those from the Faculty of Science. Topics to be covered will include matter and units of measurement, atomic theory and molecular structure, stoichiometry, the periodic classification of the elements, atomic structure, chemical bonding, thermochemistry, properties of gases and gas laws, solids, liquids and solutions
PHY 101.1 Mechanics and Properties of Matter (3)
Topics covered in this course will include the following: Motion in one dimension, motion in a plane, work and energy, conservation laws, collision, solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics, equilibrium of rigid bodies, oscillations, gravitation, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. Surface tension, viscosity and hydrostatics.
PHY 102.1 Laboratory Practice 1 (1)
This course emphasizes experimental verification and quantitative measurements of physical laws, treatment of measurement errors and graphical analysis. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems, static and rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, viscosity, elasticity, surface tension and hydrostatics.
MTH 110.1 Algebra and Trigonometry (3) 
Elementary notions of sets, subsets, union, intersection, compliments, Venn diagrams. Real numbers, integers, rational and irrationals, mapping of sets. Real functions and their compositions. Quadratic functions. Cubic function, roots of quadratic and cubic functions. Partial fractions. Equations with complex roots. Complex numbers. Geometric representation of complex numbers, De Moirvers, series and sequences. Principle of mathematical induction. Binomial theorem. Trigonometry functions of angles. Circular functions. Addition theorems. Double and half angles.
FSB 101.1 Fundamental Principle of Life (3)
Characteristics of life. Investigations in Biology, the scientific method; the substance of life, the unit of life (including methods of study); activities of cells, the control of metabolic activities; basic principles of inheritance (Genetics), evolution.
MTH 120.1 Calculus (3)
Function of a Real Variable, Graphs, Limits and idea of continuity, The Derivative as Limit of Rate of Change, Technique of Differentiation, Extreme Curve Sketching, Integration as an Inverse of Differentiation, Methods of Integration, Definite Integrals, Application to Areas, Volumes.
GLY 101.2 Planet Earth (3)
The course teaches the student the following: Origin of the Universe and the solar system. Structure and composition of the earth. The common rock-forming minerals. The major rock groups. Elements of structural Geology and Crystallography. Surface processes (Weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition). Elements of Historical geology, Paleontology and Stratigraphy. Concepts of Paleogeography, paleoclimatology, Paleoenvironment, Paleoceanography and Paleomagnetism. Introduction to concepts of continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
GLY 102.2 Laboratory / Field Practice Geology (2)
This is purely a Laboratory and fieldwork course. It includes megascopic identification of common rock-forming minerals and common rock types. Interpretations of simple topographic and geologic maps. Identification of index macrofossils and correlation exercises and geochemical analysis. The student shall go for a fieldwork.
GES 101.2 Computer Appreciation and Application (2)
History of computers. Generation and classification of computers; IPO model of a computer; components of a computer system hardware and software; programming language; organization of data; data computer techniques; introduction to computer network. Use of Keyboard as an input device: DOS, Windows, Word Processing, Spreadsheet: Application of Computers to Medicine, Social Sciences, Humanities, Education and Management Sciences.
GES 103.2 Nigeria Peoples & Culture (3)
The overall objective of this course is to help students understand the concept of culture and its relevance to human society especially as it relates to development. In more specific terms, the course will be designed to help the students know the history of various Nigerian cultures beginning with pre-colonial Nigeria society. Colonialism constitutes a vital watershed in Nigerian history. Thus the course will identify the influence of colonialism on Nigerian culture, and focus on contemporary Nigerian culture explaining issues that relate to the political economic, educational, religious and social institutions in the nation. The course outline includes the concept of culture; precolonial culture and languages of Nigeria; principles of kinship, descent and marriage in Nigerian culture; the colonial impact; Nigerian economic institutions; education and development in Nigeria; religion in Nigerian culture; culture, environment and health practices in Nigeria; intergroup relations.
CHM 132.2 Introduction to Principles of Organic Chemistry (3)
A survey of carbon compounds including an overview of the common functional groups in aliphatic and benzenoid compounds. Introduction to reactants and reactions in organic chemistry.
PHY 112.2 Introduction to Electricity & Magnetism (3)
This is the introductory course on Electricity and Magnetism. Topics covered will include the electric field, Gauss’s Law, Electric Potential, Capacitors and Dielectric, current and resistance, electromotive force and circuits, the magnetic field, Ampere’s Law, Faraday’s Law of induction.
PHY 103.2 Laboratory Practice II (1)
The experiment carried out in this course will cover areas discussed in PHY112.2. These experiments include verifications of the current electricity, measurement of electrical properties of conductors, d.c. and a.c. circuit properties, series and parallel resonant circuits, transformer characteristics and other electrical circuit problems.
CHM 235.1 Analytical Chemistry 1 (3)
Introduction to basic analytical chemistry. Concepts of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Sampling methods: representative, homogenous/heterogeneous. The theory of errors: types of errors instrumental and personal errors, sources and prevention, determinate and indeterminate errors. Statistical treatment of data: significant figure, mean, mode, accuracy, precision, standard deviation relative error, student t-tests, Q-test, F-test, confidence level and regression analysis calibration curves. Gravimetric analysis, concept of ligands and chelation. Volumetric analysis: acidimetric and alkalimeter, acid-base indicators, primary standards, precipitation and redox titrations, applications of volumetric analysis, balancing of equations. Introduction to eletroanalytical methods: electrogravimetry and coulometry
CHM 250. 1 Inorganic Chemistry I (3)
The physical principles of Inorganic Chemistry are treated. Topics include chemistry of non-transition elements and alloy chemistry.
CHM 260.1 Organic Chemistry I (3)
Fundamental theories and principles of chemical reactivity. Chemistry reactions and synthesis of monofunctional compounds. Reaction and mechanism of common reactions, stereochemistry.
STA 260.1 Introductory to Probability & Statistics (3)
Definition of probability, frequency and probability of events. Equally likely events counting techniques. Conditional probability. (Baye’s Theorem) independent events, random variables, probability distribution. The central limit theorem, mathematical expectation, moments, the mean, variance, variance of a sum, covariarance and correlation, conditional expectation. Analysis of variance plus contingency table plus parametric inference.
GLY 201.1 Stratigraphy / Historical Geology (2) 
Principles of stratigraphy.  Stratigraphic terminology, nomenclature, classification and procedure. Element of Chrono, Litho, Bio, Magneto and Seismic stratigraphy. Global regression and transgression. Stratigraphic correlation, facies analysis.  Basins and stratigraphic evolution of sedimentary basins (emphasize Benue Trough) and Geohistory analysis. Practical to include facies map, correlation and stratigraphic cross-sections. 
GLY 202.1 Structural Geology 1 (2)
Fundamentals of structural Geology. Description, genesis, classifications and interpretations of deformational structures. Unconformities, faults, folds and structural features related to igneous activity etc. Practical to include: three (3) point problems, interpretation of geologic and aerial photomaps. 
GLY 203.1 Crystallography and Mineralogy (2)
Morphological, structural and geometric crystallography. Crystal chemistry, stereographic projections. Systematic classification and description of rock-forming mineral groups. Mineral chemistry and genesis. Principle of polarizing and binocular microscopes. Basic physical and optical   characteristics of common rock-forming minerals.  Practical to include crystals projections, the binocular and polarizing microscope, petrology and petrography of common minerals and rocks.
GLY 204.2 Physical and Field Geology (3)
The purpose of Physical Geology is to learn to appreciate and interpret the stratigraphic rock record of physical processes and their relevance to the continuously changing modern world.  As resources become more limited and environments more stressed, knowledge of what the earth is made of and how and why it has and will continue to change becomes increasingly critical to making wise decisions about conservation and personal and national security.  Materials that make up the Earth (elements, minerals, rocks, water). The natural processes that shape the surface of the Earth (the action of rivers, glaciers, oceans, and wind, and weathering and erosion tectonics).  The natural processes that modify the interior of the Earth surface (plate tectonics, earthquakes, mountain building, volcanic eruptions,).Earth's resources that are utilized by mankind.  Mankind's impact on the Earth and the environment. The compass-clinometers and other geological mapping instrument and techniques. Field measurement of distance, strike (bearing and azimuth) and dip. Concepts of scale and the globe. Outcrop descriptions. Mapping styles for sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic terrians and sample geologic structures. The use  of hand lens, field identification of minerals and rocks. Method of collecting rock samples in the field. Geologic symbols. Field note taking and Geologic report preparation. Practical to include preparation of simple geologic maps. 
GLY 205.2 Optical Mineralogy (3)
Principles of crystal and mineral optics. Michel Levy colour chart, Uniaxial and Biaxial figures, extinction angles, interferences colours, identification of rock forming minerals in parallel and convergent light under the polarizing microscope. X-ray methods in crystallography and mineralogy. Practical to include: petrography of some rock types, XRD identification of mineral, photomicrography. 
GLY 206.1 Sedimentology I (3)
The geologic cycle, sedimentary processes, textures and structures. Composition (mineral and chemistry), origin and classification of sedimentary rocks (sandstones, carbonates, and shales), and minerals (evaporites, phosphates, manganese deposits, non rich rocks and sulphur). Diagenesis of sandstone and carbonates. Practical to include megascopic and microscopic identification of sedimentary rocks and by XRD methods, as well as diagenetic features and cement Para genesis. 
CHM 240.2 Physical Chemistry I (3)
Introduction to basic physical chemistry. The emphasis is on the properties of gases, the three laws of thermodynamics and the principles of chemical kinetics and electrochemical cells.
PHY 205.2 Heat Thermodynamic & Geometrical Optics (3)
The three parts of this course are heat, under which thermometry, calorimetry and heat transfer are discussed. Thermodynamics – treat the kinetic theory of an ideal gas, equation of state, reversible adiabalic and isothermal processes, the first and second laws of thermodynamics including their consequences and Geometrical optics which discusses the fundamental principles of reflection and refraction at plane and curved surfaces; emission and absorption spectra and optical instruments.
FSC 201.2 Community Service (1)
This course involves the participation of students in community activities. These include manual labour in cleaning the environment, planting of flowers, painting of defaced or faded walls and surfaces, construction of foot paths, etc.
GES 300.1 Principles of Entrepreneurship (2)
Introduction to Entrepreneurship and new venture creation; entrepreneurship in theory and practice; The opportunity, forms  of business, Staffing, Marketing and the new venture; Determining capital requirements, Raising capital; Financial planning and management; starting a new business, Feasibility studies; innovation; Legal issues; Insurance and environmental considerations. Possible business opportunities in Nigeria
GLY 301.1 Sedimentary Petrology (2)
Major controls on sedimentation (sea level changes, climatic changes, tectonic and other secular variations). Depositional models alluvial fern, braided and meandering rivers, fluvial deposits, beaches and barrier islands, intertidal flats, storm and tidal sand ridges, turbidities, reefs and other carbonate deposits). Application of depositional models to the exploration and exploitation of stratabound mineral resources. Quantitative measurement and geostatistical treatment of sedimentological data. Practical to include: Petrography of sandstone and carbonates; histogram, cumulative frequency, paleocurrent and bivariate plots, exercises on other geostatistical techniques and the reconstruction of paleodepositional environments from outcrop and subsurface data.
GLY 302.1 Igneous Petrology (2)
Definitions and introduction. The rock cycle. Origin and evolution of magma. Chemistry of magma. Physical characteristics of magma. Magmatic crystallization; differentiation and magma types. Petrogenesis and petrography of igneous rocks. Chemistry of igneous rocks (silica saturation and alumina saturation). Major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry of common igneous rocks.  Phase equilibria. Classification, description and geologic setting of igneous rocks. Mode of occurrence of igneous rocks (internal and external  processes). Plate tectonics and igneous rocks provinces. Igneous rock province of Nigeria and West Africa.  Geostatistical treatment of quantitative data from igneous rocks. Practicals to include petrography, chemical analysis (including calculation of CIPW and NIGGLI norms) and interpretation of igneous rocks.
GLY 303.1 Structural Geology II (2)
Stress and response of rocks to stress. The brittle- ductile continuum. Strain. Mohr’s diagrams and Flin’s and Tsu diagrams. Primary and secondary structures. Foliation and lineation. Models for fold development. Microstructures: faults and folds. The tectogenesis and structural analysis of major regional and complex deformational structures.  Tectonic origin evolution and classification of sedimentary basins. Concepts of cratons, mobile belts, geostructures, orogenesis and membrane tectonics. Palmspatic reconstructions of   fold belts. Statistical and geometrical analysis of tectonic structures. Practical to include: use of stereographic projection in solving structural problems. Structural interpretation of regional geological maps, structural cross sections and palmspatic map analysis.
GEO 346.1 Elementary Surveying (3)
Basic principles and types of surveying. Large scale trilateration surveys with simple/basic instruments chains, tapes, abney level, clinometer, prismatic compass, etc. Construction and use of levels and staves. Contouring. Use and functions of theodolite, GPS, sextants, etc. Use of the plane tables, alidale, plotting grids. Orientation and revision of small scale maps. Basic principles of Geoinformatics.
GLY 304.1 Systematic Paleontology (3)
Morphology and classification of the major animal phyla (Protozoa’s, Porfera, Bryozoans, Coelenterata, Brachiopod, Mollusca, Arthropod, Echinoderm, Graptolita) as well as vertebrates, plants and trace fossils. Stratigraphic paleontology and evolution of the important fossil groups. Paleo-environment and paleogeology of the various fossil groups. The Cretaceous and Tertiary mega- fossils of Nigeria and West Africa. Practical to include collection and identification of fossils.
GLY 305.1 Practice Geology Mapping (2)
The field course prepares the third year Geology students for their triple credit Research project in their final year. They spend seven to nine days in the field to map, a relatively small area under very close supervision. At the end of the work, a graded report is presented.
GLY 306.1 Principles of Geophysics (2)
Introduction to geophysical techniques (Seismic, gravity, magnetics, resistivity). Geophysical acquisition, processing and interpretation in petroleum geology and economic mineral. Borehole logging and analysis. Elements of basin analysis.
GLY 307.1   Metamorphic petrology (3)
Definition. Types of Metamorphism. Metamorphic processes, textures, structure, fabrics and mineralogy. Progressive metamorphism. Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks including migmatites and cataclastites. Classification of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic reactions. Metamorphic equilibria. Metamorphic facies. Metamorphic rock   provinces. Orogenesis and the mineralogy and chemistry of common metamorphic rocks. Practicals to include petrography and chemical analysis (including applications of CIPW and NIGGLI norms).
GLY 308.1 Principles of Geochemistry (2)
Abundance, classification and description of elements in the cosmic system (Lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere) and meteorites. Introduction to the principles of geochemical prospecting. Geochemical reaction rates and mass transfer. Fluid envelopes – Air, water envelopes. Rain, streams and Lakes. The Oceans. Environmental Geochemistry. Weathering and soils changes in rock composition. Sequence of silicate mineral alteration. Agents of weathering.  Dissolution of carbonates. Oxidation. Hydrolysis of silicates. Clay minerals. Formation of soils.  Classification of soils.
GLY 314.1 Industrial Training (9)
Every student is attached to a geological enterprise for 6 months at the end of second semester in year three. The student is closely supervised and monitored. At the end of the attachment a seminar presentation of the students major experience and a report is submitted and graded.
GES 400.1 Entrepreneurship  Project (2)
Some of the projects to be focused on include the following:
Soap/Detergent, Tooth brushes and Tooth paste making; Photography; Brick; Rope making; Plumbing; Vulcanising; Brewing; Glassware production; Paper production; water treatment, conditioning, packaging. food processing packaging preservation metal working fabrication, steel and aluminum door and windows. Training industry, vegetable, oil and salt extractions fisheries, Aquaculture. Refrigeration ,air conditioning, plastic making, farming, crop. Domestic electrical wiring radio, TV, repairs carving weaving brick laying, making bakery tailoring lron welding, Building drawing; Carpentry; Leather tanning; interior decoration, Printing; Animal Husbandry (Poultry, Piggery, Goat etc.); Metal Craft; Sanitary Wares; Vehicle Maintenance; Bookkeeping..                    
GLY 401.1 Petroleum Geology (3)
The physical and chemical properties of petroleum, distribution in time and space. The origin, migration, accumulation and entrapment of petroleum. Types of reservoir rocks and traps. Source rock characteristics, maturation and destruction of petroleum,. Abnormal pressure, formation water. Evaluation of petroleum prospects, exploration and appraisal methods, reserve estimation and classification.
GLY 402.1 Global Tectonics (2)
Continental drift, seafloor spreading, magnetic anomalies and   paleomagnetics, polarity reversals, polar wandering and migration of continents.  Earthquakes. Heat flow and vertical movements of the crust. Plate tectonics: causes, relations to mineral resources genesis, diversity and extinction of species, origin and growth of basins, rift valley basins, orogeny & orogenesis. Lunar Geology
GLY 403.1 Micropaleontology and Palynology (2)
Morphology, classification and biostratigraphic study of major groups of microfossils, especially foraminifera and their stratigraphic and paleo-environmental application; as Morphology and classification of pollen, spores and dinaflagellates, their stratigraphic distributions and paleo- environmental application. Practical cover sampling, preparation techniques and microscopic identification of common specimens.
GLY 404.1 Economic Geology (2)                                                                 
Genesis and classification of ore deposits concepts of Para genesis, zoning and geothermometry. Occurrences and distribution of minerals   in time and space. Plate tectonics and mineral genesis. Prospecting methods and mine development strategies and mineral treatment methods. Mineral Economics. Reserve calculations of mine hazards and control methods.
GLY 405.1 Hydrogeology (2)
The hydrologic cycle, hydrologic and hydro geologic properties of rocks. Occurrence, distribution and flow patterns of groundwater. Types of aquifers and characteristics. Fundamental hydrodynamic laws, groundwater and well hydraulics.  Physical, chemical and biological properties of groundwater and inventory. Pump and aquifers tests. Groundwater exploration methods. Borehole design and construction; Problems of groundwater exploration and exploitation and control. Water well drilling and construction, strata log, aquifer and pump test, water cycle and analysis of hydrographs.  Physical and chemical properties of water.
GLY 406.1 Marine Geology (2)
Elements of physical, chemical and biological oceanography. Method of ocean floor sampling and geological diagnosis. Structure, physiography, bathymetry, origin and evolution of Ocean basins. Eustatic and Isostatic changes in sea levels. Distribution of ocean floor sediments and mineral resources. Current. Wave, tide systems and sediment dispersal patterns. Shoreline erosion and deposition. Coastal management deep sea exploration projects and deep sea waste disposal methods.
GLY 407.1 Engineering Geology (2)
The Engineering properties of rocks and the engineering classification of rocks, soils and construction materials; Quarrying techniques. Elements of soil mechanics; Geological site investigation methods for building roads, bridges, dams and engineering structures. Types of foundations for engineering structures. Influence of surface and groundwater on some engineering structures.
GLY 408.1 Remote sensing and Geomatics (2)
Techniques of remote sensing, digitals mage processing, spectral properties and analysis of geological materials, lineament analysis, alternation mapping and mineral resource assessments, environmental, land use and hazard application. Current future infrared, interpretation of remote sensing data (SPOT, Land sat, MSS, RBV, TM, Seasat, SAR, air borne radar). Principles of serial photos, pattern recognition and geological interpretations. Practical:  interpretation of remote sensing and aerial photos.
GLY 409.1 Regional Geology of Africa and Geology of Nigeria (2)
Structural and stratigraphic evolution and classification of Precambrian basement complexes, pre cambrian thermal (orogenic) events and cycles with emphasis on Africa.  Pre-cambrian Basement rock- types, structures, ages and   petrology of the Nigerian basement complex and associated economic minerals. The older and younger granites of West Africa and their paleo- tectonic significance. The Paleozoic basins of Africa and their stratigraphic meteorites. The coastal Mesozoic basins of Africa and their stratigraphic evolutionary histories in the light of the plate tectonic theory.  Stratigraphic evolution of the Benue Trough, Chad basin, Niger Delta, Sokoto Basin, Dahomey, Bida and Calabar Basins
GLY 410.2 Introduction to Sequence Stratigraphy (2)
Introduction, basic concepts of sequence stratigraphy. Definition of key terms, basin fill model, strata patterns, their geological interpretation and relation to relative change in sea level. Depositional environments, paleo-bathymetry and depositional profiles, sequences, system tracts depositional systems and facies analysis. Sequence stratigraphy and bio-stratigraphy. Identifying sequence system tracts from seismic well and outcrop data.
GLY 411.2: Environmental Geology (2)
Geological hazards (Erosion, Flood, desertification, Subsidence, Landslides, earthquakes, Storms and pollution sources): their origin characteristics, and geological / geographic distributions. Control and predictions. Effects on Land use and urban planning. Environmental impact of the exploration and exploitation of the earth’s mineral resources, civil engineering structures and land reclamation. Domestic and industrial wastes (radiation etc.), disposal methods, various environmental monitoring methods. Pollution and health hazard.
GLY 412.2 Applied Geophysics (2)
Polarization and electromagnetic methods, Seismic exploration. Principles of seismic stratigraphy. Data acquisition, processing and interpretation. Application of these methods to mineral exploration, engineering geology and hydrogeology. Use of software (Petrel etc).
GLY 413.2 Applied Geochemistry (2)
Nature of applied geochemistry. Isotope The major, minor and trace element geo-chemistry of some common sedimentary, igneous   and metamorphic rocks.
Sedimentation and Diagenesis: Inorganic Geochemistry formation and crystallization of magmas, volatiles and magmas. Hydrothermal Ore deposits. Geochemical prospecting. Litho geochemistry, Biogeochemistry, Atmogeochemistry and Hydro geochemistry. Geochemical anomalies. Low Temperature Geochemistry.
GLY 414.2 Geological Mapping Project (3)
The student is assigned an area to map. This is followed by the production of a geological map and report of the area. Field work to last for or at least 14 day
GLY 415.2 Seminar in Geology (3)
The student is required to present a seminar based either on his/her research project or any chosen subject in Geology after an in depth study through either extensive literature survey and / or data analysis and data interpretation.
GLY 416.2 Research Project (6)
An independent study of a geological problem in the student’s area of interest, utilizing field mapping, laboratory analysis, data interpretation and the preparation of a geologic report.
GLY 417.2 Exploration and Mining Geology (2)
The idea of Exploration and Mining Geology
The basic idea of prospecting and exploration for mineral deposits, Exploration philosophy and management; The two main phases of Exploration programme and their basic stages; Grid setting and borehole delineation; Borehole deviation pheneomena as tool for mineral delineation; Construction of stratigraphic columns and prospect generation; Ore reserve estimation and evaluation; Classification of Ore reserves.
The idea of Mining Geology
The basic difference between Exploration and Mining Geology; The Purpose of Post-Exploration Drilling; Ore grade and grade control (cut-off grade estimation); Mineral Sampling Methods and Mathematical Treatment; Elements of Mining and Mineral Processing.



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