Department of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology

Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology

Name of Department:                              Department of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology
Name of Ag.Head Of Deparment:         Dr. J. S. Aprioku 
Contact E-mail:                                         This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Contact Phone Number(s):                   08035082379

COURSES DESCRIPTION FOR EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY

YEAR TWO              FIRST SEMESTER                                    

PHA 231.1:    Anatomy/Histology I    3 Units

Introduction to anatomy, basic organization of the human body; a study of human biological structure at various levels of complexity, from subcellular to gross and microscope structure of individual organ systems; structure-function correlations are emphasized. Integument system, circulatory system, lymphoid system, alimentary system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, genital system, endocrine system, organs of special senses.

 

PHA 232.1:    Human Physiology I              3 Units

Introduction and Blood Physiology; body fluids, Cell Physiology, Transport system, Excitable cells, Contractile tissues; Homeostasis, Control system; Introduction to Autonomic Nervous system. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiology; cardiac muscle, ECG, Homodynamic. Systemic circulations; Events in cardiac cycle; Heart rate and its control; Blood pressure; Cardiac output. Respiratory Physiology; introduction to mechanics of respiration; lung volume; Gas tensions; oxygen transport; oxygen dissociation curve; carbon dioxide transport; carbon dioxide dissociation curve; Nervous regulation of respiration;  Chemoreceptor; Hypoxia; Hyperpnoea; Periodic respiration; Dyspnoea;  Cyanosis.

 

YEAR TWO              SECOND SEMESTER                               

PHA 234.2:    Anatomy/Histology II (Neuroanatomy)       2 Units

Basic structural organization of the nervous system; the neuron (Soma and neuritis); centralization and Telencephalization; Neural circuitry (receptors, effectors and synapse); spinal cord and brain vesicles; fate of the Neural crest. Spinal Cord; general topography; grey matter; ascending and descending pathways. Brain; general topography; brain stem; cerebellum; diencephalons; cerebrum. Meninges and Veeticular Systems; Pia, Arachnoid of Dura Mater; secretion and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; blood – brain barrier. Peripheral Nervous System; basic plan; sympathetic systems; parasympathetic systems; autonomic effector endings. Class demonstration to illustrate the various systems and organs covered in the theory. Practical Histology of tissue and organs

 

 PHA 235.2:                Human Physiology II (Renal, Gastrointestinal and Endocrine Physiology)   2 Units

Renal Physiology; introductory renal anatomy glomerular filtration and clearance, Tubular reabsorption, Tm; countercurrent mechanism; E.C.F. Regulation: dilute and concentrated urine output; Micturition; Renal hormones; Renin-Angiotensin system. Gastrointestinal Physiology; introduction; Mastication; deglutition; salivation; stomach and its emptying. Small intestine, large intestine; salivary, gastric and pancreatic juices. Reflexes, Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation; Bile. Endocrinology and Reproduction; introduction and general features; Thyroid; Parathyroid and calcium metabolism; pituitary gland; Adenohypophysis, Neurohypophysis, Adrenal  cortex and Medulla.   Thymus, pineal gland, male and female reproductive systems. Neurophysiology and Special Senses; organization of CNS and CNS control systems, spinal reflexes, Excitation, Inhibition. Localization of the functions in the cortex, Motor system, pyramidal and Extrapyramidal sensory systems, Reticular formation, cerebellum, control of postures, Neurobiology rhythms, sleep and unconscious states, memory, learning. Autonomic Nervous system; parasympathetic and sympathetic neuroeffectors, Cholinergic mechanisms, Adrenergic mechanisms, Autonomic reflexes, Adrenal medulla, autonomic drugs.  Special Senses; eyeball, retina, sight, accommodation, photochemical mechanism, receptor potential, light reflexes, adaptation. Ear: sound waves, hearing, taste, smell. Experiment to demonstrate the various physiology functions using isolated tissues, whole animal, man, urine and blood analysis.

 

YEAR THREE         FIRST SEMESTER                                   

PCL 361.1:                 Pharmacology I (General Principles of Pharmacology)   2 Units

Introduction; History of Pharmacology and relationship of pharmacology to other pharmaceutical and clinical subjections. Pharmacology textbooks and journals. Definition of some basic terminologies

Definition and source of drugs. Routes of drug administration. Drug Absorption, Distribution, Elimination and factors affecting them. Enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition. Mechanism of drug action- Receptor and non-receptor theory. Drug dosage and dose response curve; Therapeutic index; Measurement of some pharmacological parameters. Drug interaction. Drug development; Principles, design and types of bioassay.

 

PCL 362.1:     Practical Pharmacology I             1 Unit

Practical to demonstrate topics covered in PCL 361.1

 

YEAR THREE         SECOND SEMESTER                               

PCL 363.2:                 Pharmacology II (Autonomic Pharmacology)               2 Units

Cholinergic (Parasympathetic) Mechanism-theory of chemical neurotransmitters- Evidence of acetylcholine as a cholinergic neurotransmitter. Detection and mono assay of acetylcholine. Cholinergic receptors; sites of action of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Agonist and antagonists of cholinergic transmission. Parasympathomimetic and parasympatholytic drugs. Cholinesterase and anti-cholinesterase. Properties and uses of anticholinesterase, structure activity relationship among cholinergic and anticholinergic agents. Neuromuscular transmission; drugs that enhance neuromuscular transmission: neuromuscular blockade; smooth muscle relaxants; ganglion stimulation and blockade; properties of ganglion stimulants and blockers. Adrenergic (sympathetic) mechanisms: evidence for nor-adrenaline as an adrenergic neuro-transmitter; synthesis, storage, release, metabolism and uptake of catecholamine; Various drugs affecting these processes; detection and bioassay of adrenaline and non-adrenaline. adrenergic receptors – types of adrenergic receptors. sympathomimetic amines – catecholamine, properties and uses. Structure activity relationships among the sympathomimetic amines and Beta – adrenergic blockers; adrenoceptor antagonists; adrenergic neuron blocking drugs.

 

PCL 364.2:     Practical Pharmacology II              1 Unit

Practicals to demonstrate topics covered in PCL 363.2

YEAR FOUR                        FIRST SEMESTER            

PCL 461.1:          Pharmacology III (Pharmacology of Organ Systems) 2 UnitsCardiovascular pharmacology:- cardiac muscle physiology: congestive heart failure; hypertension and antihypertensive drugs; antiangina drugs & vasodilators – cardiac glycosides, quinidine & quinidine –like drugs; antihypotensive drugs: vasoconstrictors; antimigraine drugs; anti-antiarrhythmic drugs; calcium blockers; autacoid, histamine; diuretic; diuresis; 5-hydroxtryptamine; prostaglandins and their antagonists; leucotrienes and their roles in pharmacodynamics. Respiratory pharmacology: - respiratory physiology; respiratory stimulant; anti-tussive and expectorant; drugs in asthma; bronchitis; pneumonia. Renal Pharmacology: - renal physiology; diuretic: anti diuretics; antiuremic drugs; drugs in urinary tract infections. Gastro-intestinal pharmacology:- anti ulcer; anti diarrhoeal agent; purgatives; antispasmodic; digestants. Endocrine and Reproductive system pharmacology:- thyroid and anti thyroid drugs; parathyroid and calcitonin; anterior pituitary hormones and related substances; drug acting on the uterus; Hypophyseal hormone and pineal gland; insulin and oral hypoglycemic agent; Glucagons , ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone); adrenocorticosteroids; sex hormones; estrogen and progesterone; oral contraceptives and fertility agents; pregnancy and lactation; androgenic and anabolic steroids.

 

PCL 462.1:     Practical Pharmacology III                 1 Unit

Methodology in evaluation of chemotherapeutic agent. Determination of therapeutics indices, using isolated and whole animal. Psycho and neuropharmacology practicals.

 

PCL 463.2:                 Pharmacology IV (Neuropharmacology)           2 Units

Central  Nervous System  Pharmacology: central neurotransmitters; local and general anesthetics, differentiation of action; anxiety-reducing drugs; sedatives; hypnotics; antipsychotic drugs;-mechanism of action; Extapyramidal side effects; Parkinson disease; Huntington’s  chorea;   Wilson’s disease; antidepressant drugs;-Depression; Type of anti-depressant drugs:-Tricyclics:-typical and atypical; mode of action and side effects; antiepileptic drugs:-Epilepsy;-types of seizures and drugs used in each case; cconvulsant  agent:-strychnine,  bicuculine picrotoxin; tetanus  toxin; psychomimetic drugs. Pharmacology  of pain:- introduction; definition; types; characteristics  and  pathophysiology  of  pain;-aspirin, morphine; mechanism  of  action  of  antipyretic  anti-inflammatory  analgesics, opiates, receptors, tolerance   and  dependence. Inflammation; Allergy; anaphylaxis; Hypersensitivity. Experimental models and screening techniques for analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Narcotic analgesics; Drugs in gout; vasoactive agents mediating pains. Immunomodulation agents; Immunosuppresive agents (corticosteroid  cyclosporine; Tacrolimus; Rapomycin etc).

 

YEAR FIVE              FIRST SEMESTER                                    

PCL 561.1:                 Pharmacology V (Chemotherapy of   Diseases)     2 Units

Chemotherapy  of  microbial  disease:- Introduction  to  chemotherapy; the  molecular basis  of  chemotherapy. Basic  principle  of  chemotherapy  including  mode  of  actions  of  antimicrobial  agents:-the  sulphonamides; penicillins; streptomycin;  chloramphenicol;  polypeptide  antibiotics: the  aminoglycosides; miscellaneous  antimicrobial. Drugs used in treatment of tuberculosis and   leprosy. Antiprotozoal  and  antiparasitic  agent:-(To  cover  the  life  history  of  important  human  pathogenic  parasite-Tropical  disease); Antimalaria and  mechanism  of  action. Amoebiasis, Trichomoniasis; schistosomiasis; filariasis, Leishmaniacide and Trypanocide; Onchocerciasis. Chemotherapy  of   neoplastic  disease:- Principles  of  cancer  chemotherapy;  classification  of  anti-neoplastics;-alkylating  agent;  antimetabolites;  Hormones  and  other  neoplastic  agents. The   mechanism of action; side effects and toxicity. Cytotoxic drugs and their mechanism of action. Radiophamaceuticals. Vaccines and sera. Anti viral    agents:  antiretroviral drugs, etc.

 

YEAR FIVE              SECOND SEMESTER                           

PCL 562.2:     Toxicology                 2 Units

Introduction; origin and scope of toxicology. Introduction to laboratory method. Toxicological Evaluation; Purpose and value of LD50 determination. Metabolism of some toxic substances;-  Pesticides;  insecticides;  cyanides. Teratology; Antidotes;  Acute  and  chronic  poisoning;  carcinogen;  mutagenesis;  cosmetic  testing;  systemic  toxicology. Clinical toxicology:-  Toxicological  evaluation  of  a  new  drug. Management  of  drugs  poisoning;  Agricultural,  environmental  and  industrial  Toxicology,  including  food  additives. Forensic Toxicology.

 

PHA 502.2:         Veterinary Pharmacy          2 Units

The course will cover, the pharmacology of chemotherapeutic agents that include; anticocidals; antibabesis; antitrypanosmials; antianaplasmosis; antitheleriosis, e.t.c.; Pharmacology of anthelminthic to include; antinematodals, anticestodals; anthelminthics against other worms found in animals; Toxicology of rodenticides and insecticides

Chemistry of veterinary drugs with special reference to structural features, stability, absorption and metabolism of the pharmaceuticals: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, prostanoids, growth promoters and miscellaneous veterinary drugs;

Antimicrobial agents of veterinary importance: veterinary parasites and microorganisms; Formulation of veterinary drugs; Medicinal plants and other natural products for veterinary use, teratogens and animal health;

Poisons and Pharmacy Act Cap 152 as it relates to veterinary practice

Immunomodulation agents; Immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroid cyclosporine; Tacrolimus; Rapomycin etc).

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