Department of Crop & Soil Science

Crop & Soil Science

Name of Department:                             

 Department of Crop & Soil Science 
Name of Ag.Head Of Deparment:         

Dr. O. M. Adedokun 
Contact E-mail:                                         

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.             
Contact Phone Number(s):                       

08023005782

 

HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCE
THE Department of Crop and Soil Science is one of the Departments in the Faculty of Agriculture, created at the onset of the Faculty of Agriculture in 2005. The Department has three options namely, Crop Production, Crop Protection and Soil Science. Courses are taught towards the award of a single degree – Bachelor of Agriculture (B. Agric.), with emphasis on the options stated above, and this is reflected in the curriculum for each of the options. In addition the Department provides services to the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies in the faculty of Social Sciences and the Agricultural Programmes of the Faculty of Education.
Vision
The Department of Crop and Soil Science is one of the department of the Faculty of Agriculture that is designed to give a broad based undergraduate training in Agriculture especially as it relates to the aspect of Crop and soil Science.
 
Philosophy
The philosophy of the programme is to train students with broad-based skills and capacity to utilize specific knowledge in developing practical solutions to the problems of agriculture and the related activities particularly in Niger Delta Environment.
 
Mission
Our Mission is to contribute to national enlightenment and agricultural development, self-reliance and unity through the advancement and propagation of scientific knowledge and to utilize same for service to community and humanity.
 
Objectives
The objectives of the department are to produce graduates of agriculture that will be able to accomplish the following:
a. Engage in production and research that would provide relevant and appropriate solutions to the country’s agricultural and rural development problems as it relates to the elements of crop/soil and also to improve agricultural productivity in general.
b. Take up employment anywhere in Nigeria in any aspect of Crop and Soil Science and related areas.
c. To advance knowledge in crop production, protection and soil management techniques in order to enhance their skills and expertise required for expertise and self-reliance and gainful employment;
d. To train students in improved crop production techniques which will enable them provide services to farmers.
e. To build capacity of students to be able to conduct research in areas of fertility and integrated pest/disease management.
f. To establish linkages with national and international agricultural and other related institutions for research and development.
g. To enable the students, acquire knowledge through broad-based training to meet Minimum Academic Standards (MAS) for Agriculture required by the National Universities Commission (NUC), thereby making our graduates competitive in various ventures.
h. Profitably put their skills into practice by establishing and operating their own farming enterprises; and
i. To harness all the above to specifically solve crop production problems of the peculiar ecology of the Niger Delta.
YEAR ONE (FIRST SEMESTER)
GES 100.1Communication Skills in English (3 units)  
Study/library skills and methods: methods for taking and making notes; techniques for organizing study time; study methods and coping with examinations; Library skills and location of library materials. Listening skills: skills for effective listening comprehension. Basic skills in understanding lectures, dialogue or conversation. Identifying/understanding relevant Language Points in the discourse. Making notes/summaries of lectures. Decoding texts/information, vocabulary, inference and meaning, understanding grammar, usage, and style. Reading skills: Importance of Reading; reading as study technique. Kinds of reading: speed reading, skimming, scanning, intensive, extensive, reading for evaluation. Understanding text organization. Reading comprehension: SQ3R method. Reading and developing Vocabulary. Using grammar in Reading and Writing. The Hierarchy: Words and their classes, phrases/clauses. Level of the sentence: English as a SVOCA language. Vocabulary, using the dictionary and word relationships: polysemy, antonym, synonyms, homonyms, homophones, denotation/connotation, collocational patterns: affixation, suffixation, etc. Writing and Speaking Skills.
 
 
FSB 101.1 General Biology I (3 units)
Characteristics of life. Investigation in biology. The scientific substance of life; the unit of life (including methods of study); activities of cells; the control of metabolic activities, cell division. Basic principles of inheritance.
 
CHM 130.1 General Chemistry I (3 units)
Introduction to chemistry; matter, energy, measurement, significant figures; dimensional analysis. State and classification of matter, mixtures, compounds and elements. Atomic theory and molecular structure. Atoms, molecules, ions, periodic table, inorganic nomenclature. Equations, types of reactions, atomic and molecular weights, the mole. Empirical formulae, stoichiometry limiting reagent, molarity, titration. Energy, enthalpy, Hess’s law, standard heat of formation, calorimetry. Size of atoms, patterns on periodic table. Chemical bonding, valence, electrons, ionic bonding and size of ions, covalent bonding, and Lewis structures, resonances forms, bond energies, polarities. Hydrogen bonding in solids. Types of solution, concentrations, solution process, T and P effects, reactions in aqueous solutions, colligative properties.
 
 
PHY 101.1 Mechanics and Properties of Matter (3 units)
Topics covered in this course will include the following: motion in one dimension in a plane, work and energy, conservation laws, oscillation, solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics, equilibrium of rigid bodies, gravitation, Galilean invariance, surface tension, elasticity and viscosity.
 
MTH 120.1 Calculus (3 units)
Function of a real variable, graphs, limits and idea of continuity. The derivative as limit of rate of change. Techniques of differentiation. Extreme curve sketching, integration as an inverse of differentiation. Methods of integration. Definite integrals. Application to areas, volumes. 
 
GES102.1 Introduction to Logic and Philosophy (2units)
Symbolic logic, special symbols in symbolic logic; conjunction, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statement; the laws of thought; the method of deduction using rules of inference and bi-conditionals and quantification theory.
 
MTH 110.1 Elementary Algebra and Sets (2units)
Algebra and Trigonometry; Real number system, Real sequences and series: sets and sub sets; unit intersection, complements, empty and universal sets, Venn diagram; one way correspondence between sets; quadratic functions and equations; solution of linear equation, simple properties of determinants; indices and binomial theorem; transformations e.g. Log transformation equation of the straight line and application to simple regression equation; permutations and combinations; circular measure, trigonometric functions of angles, addition and factor formulae; complex numbers; moments and couples; relative velocity; calculus; elementary function of simple real variables; graphs of simple functions; the differentiations of simple algebra; exponential and log functions, differentiation of a sum; product; quotient; function of function rules; implicit differentiation; definite and indefinite integrations of functions; application of definite and indefinite integrals to areas and volumes.
 
PHY 102.1 Physics Practical (1unit)
Motion in one dimension in a plane; work and energy; conservation laws; oscillation; solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics; equilibrium of rigid bodies; gravitation, Galilean invariance, surface tension, elasticity and viscosity. Emphasis is on experimental verifications and quantitative measures of physical laws, treatment of measurement errors and graphical analysis. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems; static and rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, viscosity, elasticity, surface tension and hydrostatics
 
YEAR ONE (SECOND SEMESTER)
GES 103.2 Nigerian People and Culture (2 units)
Concepts of culture; The study of Nigerian history and culture in the pre-colonial, colonial and contemporary times; the Nigerian’s perception of his world; cultural areas of Nigeria and their characteristics; cultural contact and social change; ethnicity and integration; evolution of Nigeria as a political unit. Norms, values, moral obligations of citizens- environmental sanitation.
 
FSB 102.2 General Biology II (3 units)
Varieties of organisms. Principles of classification of organisms- systematics. A study of selected animals and plant groups. Analysis of flora and fauna of assigned habitats.
 
 
CHM 131.2 General Chemistry II (3 units)
Application of the principles of chemical and physical change to the study of the behaviour of matter and interaction between matters. Course content includes, the chemistry of the representative elements and their common compounds with emphasis on graduation of their properties. Brief chemistry of the first, series of transition elements, general principles of extraction of metals; introductory nuclear chemistry.
 
CHM 132.2 Introduction to Principles of Organic Chemistry (3 units)
A survey of carbon compounds including an overview of the common functional groups in aliphatic and benzenoid compounds. Introduction to reactants and reaction in organic chemistry.
 
PHY 115.2 Heat, Light and Sound (2 units)
Thermodynamics, colorimetry and heat transfer. Geometrical optics will include reflection of light at the plane and curved surfaces, and optical instruments. Properties and progression of sound waves. Sound waves propagating in air columns. Doppler Effect.
 
GES 101.2 Computer Appreciation and Application (2 units)
Introduction to basic computer concepts. Historical development and classification of computers. Hardware, software and firm ware components of a computer. Computer programming languages, introduction to data bases, data capture techniques. Introduction to computer networks, computer operation. Introduction to Disk Operating System (DOS). Microsoft windows and windows applications. Introduction to data processing. An introduction to the internet.
AGR 101.2 Introductory Statistics for Agriculture (2 units)
Idea of statistics. Sequence of statistical investigation; Data collection methods; Sampling; Basic statistical notations; Methods of collation and presentation of data; Measures of location (mean, mode, median); quantities; Measures of dispersion (variance, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variation), skewness and kurtosis.
 
YEAR TWO (FIRST SEMESTER)               
AGR 201.1 General Agriculture (2 units)
Definition, scope and importance of agriculture; Agricultural ecological zones and distribution of farm; Introduction to Agricultural Economics and Extension; Introduction to Farm Forestry; Introduction to Crop Science; Introduction to Soil Science; Introduction to Farm Mechanization; Introduction to Animal Science; Introduction to Fisheries and Aquaculture; Post-harvest handling of agricultural products. 
 
CPS 201.1 Crop Anatomy, Taxonomy and Physiology (2 units)
Parts of the crop cell, cell biology and cell types.  Development of cells and tissues, comparative anatomy of major plant organs.  Enzymes, photosynthesis, respiration and energy utilization; Transpiration; pollination and fertilization; seed dormancy and germination, mineral nutrition. Introduction to plant taxonomy, characteristics, distribution, economic importance and local examples of Leguminosae, Poacae, Compositae, Dioscoreasae, Rutaceasae, use of plant keys. Growth and development, structure and function of plant growth hormones.  Practical: dormancy and seed germination studies; mineral nutrition experiment.
 
AGE 201.1 Principles of Agricultural Economics (2 units)
Economics of agriculture, efficiency of resource allocation; Agricultural resources; Production, processing, marketing/distribution and utilization of farm produce; Cost Price analysis, demand, supply. 
 
FWL 201.1 Introduction to Forestry and Wildlife Management (2 units)
Nature and scope of forestry and forest. Structure, classification and importance of forest. Forest products; fauna and flora. Introduction to wildlife, importance of wildlife, forestry and wildlife interlinks.
 
AGR 2C1.1 Community Service (1 unit)
The course is designed to make the students appreciate the dignity of labour and to acquire a sense of service to the community. Students are to execute various special projects modelled in line with their field of study.
 
AGX 201.1 Introduction to Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology (2 units)
The need for agricultural extension; agricultural extension in the world and in Nigeria; basic philosophy and principles of agricultural extension; basic concepts and principles of rural sociology to an understanding of rural situation; Importance of rural communities and institutions, social stratification, social processes and social changes in rural areas; Leadership in rural communities; opinion leadership; role and function of rural leaders; communication techniques and strategies of change; various agricultural extension teaching methods, aids and their use
 
AGR 202.1 Introduction to Farm Power and Machinery (2 units)
Aims and objectives of farm mechanization. Basic mechanics. Workshop tools. Principles of internal combustion engines and electric motor. Study of farm machinery used for tillage; ploughs, harrows, cultivators, farm power transmission system. Harvesting and processing equipment. (sprayers and dusters). Equipment for livestock (automatic feed conveyors, automatic drinkers for poultry, feeding and watering equipment, milking and milk handling equipment, meat processing equipment). Water lifting and irrigation equipment. Survey instruments used on the farm. Operating principles, selection and maintenance procedure of farm machinery. Farm machinery costing and records. Workshop and building materials used on the farm. 
Practicals: Day-to-day operations of machines and implements; visits to farm machinery suppliers such as Dizengoff, SCOA, etc.
SOS 201.1Introduction to Soil Science (2 Credits)
Soils - genesis and formation, factors of soil formation, weathering (physical, chemical and biological), physico-chemical properties of soils. Soil moisture, air, and temperature, soil classification and survey, scope of soil science.Soil colloids,soil reactions.Soil organic matter and soil organisms, soil and water conservation, nutrient requirements and mineral nutrition of plants, introduction to fertilizers.
Practical: Description of soil profile pit; particle size analysis.
 
AGR 203.1 Introduction to Agricultural Microbiology (2 units)
Importance of microbiology in agriculture; Introduction to microbial world; Broad groups of microflora and microfauna; Classification of microorganisms and other soil organisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, protozoans, earthworms, and other annelids) Morphology, growth and reproduction of bacteria, yeast, moulds, viruses; Importance of soil microbiology in agriculture, classification of soil organisms; soil organic matter decomposition; microbial transformation of phosphorus, iron, nitrogen and  sulphur; biochemistry and microbiology of nitrification; nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes and its significance. Microbial release of nutrients in soils and plant nutrition. Influence of soil factors on population and activities of microbes; role of micro-organisms in soil fertility. Transformation of hydrocarbons and pesticides. Rhizosphere and its importance. 
Practical: Use of microscopes; Cultivation of micro-organisms, preparation of culture media, isolation of bacteria and fungi; Preparation of slides for microscopic examination and identification; safety precautions in microbiology laboratory.
AGR 204.1 Computer Applications to Agriculture (2 units)
Importance of computers in Agriculture; ICT applications in Agriculture; Use of spreadsheet; use of graphics for agricultural communication; use of Power-point for presentation. Data management; Use of statistical packages. Visits to organizations 
FOR DIRECT ENTRY STUDENT ONLY
Course Outline for GES 200.1 * Communication skills and Computer Application (3 Credit Units)
This GES Course for Direct Entry students will be taught in the first semester of Year II in two modules;
Section A: Communication Skills in English: Study and Library Skills - Note Taking and Use of Reference Materials, Listening Skills - Poor listening hindrances to effective communication, Speaking / Oral Skills - Speech Sounds of English and Public Speaking Skills, Reading Skills, Reading Comprehension Strategies and Bad Reading Habits, Writing Skills - Writing of Seminars and Term Papers, Paragraphing and other Writing Techniques, Grammar and Mechanics - Word Classes, Concord and Punctuation Marks, Literary Skills - Types of Genres- Drama, Prose and Poetry, and Figurative Languages.
Section B: Computer Application: Components of a Computer System (Hardware and Software) Computer Operation and Application, Programming Languages, Data Capture Techniques, Disc Operating Systems (DOS), Windows, Word Processing and Spreadsheet, Application of Computer to Medicine, Social Sciences, Humanities, Education and Management Sciences, Data Processing, Managing Data using Database, Introduction to Computer Network, internet and its Application.
 
YEAR TWO (SECOND SEMESTER)
AGF 201.2 Farm Practice (2 units)
Fisheries Animal Science Crop/Soil Science Forestry/Wildlife
Fish culture
Hatchery production
Fish feed production Livestock Production: Silage making Mushroom production
Composting
Budding/Grafting
Soil Survey Bee Keeping
Snail Production
Game management
Forest nursery/Arboretum
 
 
AGR 205.2 Agro-climatology and Meteorology (2 units)
The principles, aims and scope of climatology and biogeography. The elements and control of climate and weather and the dynamics of the earth atmosphere. Radiation and heating of the atmospheric systems, atmospheric moisture, the dynamics of pressure and wind systems. Condensation and precipitation processes. Seasonal variation in temperature, day length, radiation, rainfall and evaporation. Equipment and maintenance of standard meteorological stations. The climate; relation between agriculture and climate with reference to crops, livestock, irrigation, pests and diseases. Environment and its significance to agriculture, influence of moisture, humidity temperature, radiation and wind in crop growth and production; wind breaks and shelter belts; micro-changes within crop stands and their effects on crops, selection of crops in relation to environmental factors. 
Practical: Measurements of net radiation and micro-climatic parameter in crop stands, study of agro meteorological data; fieldtrips to meteorological stations.
 
AGR 206.2 Principles of Food Science and Technology (2 units)
Definition and scope of Food Science and Technology; Food distribution and Marketing; Food and its functions; Food habits; Food poisoning and its prevention; Principles of food processing and preservation; Discussion of different preservation methods; Deterioration and spoilage of foods, other post-harvest changes in food; contamination of foods and natural sources; Composition and structures of Nigerian/West African food; factors contributing to texture, colour, aroma and flavour of food; Cost; Traditional and ethnic influences of food preparation and consumption pattern; Elementary Biotechnology. 
 
AGR 207.2 Introduction to Home Economics (2 units) 
Philosophy, scope, objectives and historical development of home economics (Food and Nutrition, Home management, Clothing and Textile); Examination of basic human needs with respect to food, clothing, shelter and health. Programme approaches in home economics which help to meet these needs. Preparation for careers in a variety of occupation. Roles of women in agriculture. 
Practical: flour confectioneries; industrial catering
 
CPS 202.2 Principles of Crop Production (2 units)
Crop production and its development. The principles, problems and prospects of crop production, importance of crop rotation, cultural practices; water uptake, weeds, weed control, and their effects on crop production, pests and diseases.   Basic Mendelian genetics. Principles of crop production, harvesting, processing and storage.  
Practical: test of seed viability, germination of seeds in laboratory and in field; tillage practices; identification of fertilizers; field trip to different cropping systems.
 
ANS 201.2: Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals (2 units)
Introduction and glossary of some anatomical and physiological terms. External features of farm animals including their functions and usefulness. Skeletal, digestive and other systems in ruminants and non-ruminants. Nature of farm animals (body fluids; homeostasis; temperature regulation). Blood cells and their various functions. Classes and roles of farm animals. Nutrition and digestion in non-ruminants and ruminants. Endocrinology and its functions. Egg formation and production in poultry. Lactation and milk let down in farm animals.
 
ANS 202.2: Principles of Animal Production (2 units)
Animal production and its development. The livestock industry – problems and prospects. Introduction to the factors of production in animal husbandry. Descriptions of different breeds of cattle, sheep and goats; pigs, poultry and rabbits, etc. Feeding habits of farm animals. Principles of breeding and livestock judging. General principles of management for different classes of farm animals (parent stock, breeders, weaners, etc.). Livestock husbandry operation and production systems for different livestock – cattle, sheep and goats, poultry, swine, and rabbit. The impacts of the environment on livestock production.
 
FSH 201.2 Introduction to Fisheries (2 units)
Introduction, definitions, nature and scope of fisheries; Fish products and their importance. External morphological features of bony and cartilaginous fishes.
FOR DIRECT ENTRY STUDENT ONLY
Course Outline for GES 201.2 - Logic, Philosophy of Science and Nigerian Heritage (3 Credit Units) This GES Course for Direct Entry students will be taught in the second semester of Year II in two modules:
Section A: Logic and Philosophy of Sciences: The Nature, Definition and Scope of Logic as a branch of Philosophy, Types of Arguments and Laws of Thoughts, Symbols in Logic, Informal Fallacy, Discovery and validity of Scientific Findings, Overview of Man's Dynamic Environment, Global Environmental Problems (Acid Rain, Global Warming, Ozone Depletion), Elements of Food and Nutrition in the Society, Sustainable use of Natural Resources * Resource Types, Renewability and Energy Resources.
Section B: Nigerian Heritage: Notable Ethnic Groups in Nigeria, The Nigerian Economy and National Development, Social Organisations and Citizenship in Nigeria, Health Care Delivery Systems in Nigeria, Religious Development in Nigeria, Traditional and Modern Methods of Crime and Crime Control in Nigeria.
 
YEAR THREE (FIRST SEMESTER)
AGR 301.1 Introduction to Remote Sensing (2 units)
Introduction; Physics of EMR (Energy sources, radiation principles); characteristics of Remote Sensing sensors and satellites; Reflectance properties of earth surface and atmospheric features (energy interactions, spectral reflectance curve, spectral reflectance of soil, water and vegetation); Remote sensing  data analysis (visual image interpretation, digital image processing); Integration of remote sensing with GPS and GIS; Reference field data; successful applications. Practical:
 
AGR 302.1: Agricultural Research and Report writing (2 units)
Purpose and type of research; research proposal; problem identification and hypothesis formulation; methods of primary and secondary data collection; data organization and presentation; scientific writing; formats for project and thesis presentation. Review of basic statistics: frequency distribution, measures of location and dispersion; Principles of field experimentation.
 
 
AGE 301.1 Introduction to Farm Management (2 units)
The nature of farm management and production economics. Theory of agricultural production and revenue concepts; Elements of time, risk, and uncertainty in agricultural production. Break-even, gross net margin, and budgetary analysis.   
 
AGE 302.1 Introduction to Mathematical Economics for Agriculture (2 units)
Simple production function. The nature of Mathematics for Economists, Terminologies, Concepts and Tools in Mathematics for Economists; variables, constants, parameters and coefficients. Graphs, slopes and intercepts. Supply and Demand analysis. Derivatives and rules of differentiations. Income and determination models IS-LM analysis. Marginal concepts in Economics. Integration and logarithms.
 
AGE 303.1 Economic Analysis (2 units)
Nature and scope of macro-economics, circular flow of national income and product. Determinants of aggregates. National income, expenditure, investments, interest rates, savings and employments. Demand and supply of money and monetary policies. Macro-economic equilibrium. Nature, causes and remedies of inflation. International trade    
 
ANS 301.1: Animal Health and Diseases (2 units)
The economic impacts of diseases on livestock and poultry production; environmental factors in relation to major livestock and poultry diseases. Helminth and protozoal parasites of livestock and poultry. Bacterial, fungal and viral infections of farm animals; the classification, diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, treatment and control of different livestock and poultry diseases. Notifiable diseases. Principles of immunity and disease resistance and their practical applications. The science, handling and management of sick animals; Drug administration, vaccination programmes and schedules. Ante- and post-mortem examinations in the diagnosis of diseases; Applied entomology and elements of chemical and biological control of disease vectors in livestock and poultry; Applied parasitology in livestock and poultry, and their socio-economic effects.
 
ANS 302.1: Non-Ruminant Animal Production (2 units)
Non-ruminant animal industry and its contribution to national growth and development. Importance and distribution of non-ruminant animals. Breeds and production systems. Nature of non-ruminant farm animals – poultry, swine, rabbits, and selected micro-livestock of socio-economic importance. Management and husbandry practices. Animal health and hygiene. Non-ruminant products and by-products, and marketing.
 
CPS 301.1 Arable Crop Production (2 units)
Origin, distribution, soil and climatic requirements of cereals, grain legumes, root and tuber crops, fibre crops, sugar crops and other important arable crops in Nigeria. Improved varieties, production practices, harvesting, utilization, processing, storage and economic aspects of the selected arable crops.  
Practical: study of various production practices of some selected crops from sowing to harvesting in small plots.
 
 
 
CPP 302.1 Introduction to Entomology (2 units)
Insect morphology, structure and function; life cycles and metamorphosis, semi-chemicals – kairomones, allomones, pheromones; insects classification and identification; orders of insects of economic importance with special emphasis on insects found in Nigeria. 
Practical: insects morphology, taxonomy and identification; killing and preservation of insects; preparation for insects parts, fixing, staining and drawing.
 
SOS 301.1 Pedology and Soil Physics (2 units)
Soils, its origin, and formation. Soil morphological characteristics, soil components,  rock and mineral weathering. Profile pit, soil survey, soil mapping, soil classification, properties and managment of Nigerian soils.Definition of soil physics, physical properties of soils, mechanical analysis of soils, textural profile, soil structure, bulk density,  porosity, effects of applied stress on soil, soil compaction and compression, soil air and aeration, soil water content, properties and forces acting on soil water, management of soil physical conditions, soil tilth and tillage, soil physics and agriculture.
Practical:  laboratory and field determinations of soil physical properties, soil profile pit description.
 
YEAR THREE (SECOND SEMESTER)
ANS 303.2: Ruminant Animal Production (2 units)
Ruminant animal industry and its contribution to the growth and development of an economy. Breeds and production systems. Housing, feeding, breeding and reproduction in ruminants. Management of breeding stock; growing of young ruminants including housing and feeding of cattle, sheep and goats. Ruminant health and hygiene. Ruminant products and by-products, and marketing.
 
ANS 304.2: Animal Genetics and Breeding (2 units)
History of genetics and breeding; Chromosomes structure, number and variation; Gene and genotype; Genetic code; Mendelism; fundamental principles of inheritance; Quantitative and qualitative characters and their inheritance. Different types of gene action, values and means, repeatability, heritability, etc. Animal variation and selection principles; Breeding and environmental effects; Inbreeding, pure line breeding, cross breeding and other breeding methods. Selection in breeding, and genetic engineering in contemporary livestock production systems.
 
 
AGF 301.2 Field Course (1unit)
Study visit to areas, institutions, industries, etc. relevant to students’ area of specialization. Students are required to write a report on the trip.
 
AGR 303.2 Agricultural Biochemistry (2 units)
Biochemistry in agriculture, food and nutrition; Proteins, vitamins, minerals in farm produce- eggs, meat, vegetable, etc. food processing and natural products; Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (metabolic pathways).
 
CPS 303.2 Permanent Crops (2 units)
Origin, distribution, soil and climatic requirements of some important permanent and perennial crops such as cocoa, oil palm, rubber, coffee, tea, coconut, sugarcane, kola, cashew, mango, bananas, plantain, citrus, guava, gum Arabic, etc.  Production practices, improvement, harvesting, utilization, processing, storage and economic aspects of some selected permanent and perennial crops.  
Practical: visit to different nurseries and plantations to observe practices followed in the propagation of permanent crops; propagation of few permanent crops in the University farm.
 
CPS   304.2 Crop Genetics and Breeding (2 units)
Cell structure and components, chromosomes, structure, number and variations; linkage and cross-over, mutation and genes in population and transmission of biological variations, theory of evolution, fundamental principles of inheritance.  Mendelian genetics, introduction to population and quantitative genetics. Objectives and general principles of crop breeding including their application to self-pollinated and vegetative propagated crops. General and special methods of selection, in-breeders and out-breeders; compatibility; male sterility. Heterosis, polyploidy in crop breeding; mutation breeding.  Breeding methods for crop improvement, development, multiplication and distribution of improved varieties.
 
CPP 305.2 Introduction to Phytopathogens and Weed Science (2 units)
The major fungi, bacteria and viruses; nematodes, weeds and other disease organisms of crops and stored products. Study of the effects of bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes – their biology and ecology; morphology and taxonomy of weeds; modes of dispersal and germination; characteristics, classification and biology of weed. Taxonomy, morphology and life history of plant parasitic nematodes. 
Practical: identification of common weeds in the area; field study in the University farm. Microscopic studies of nematodes; techniques of processing soil and plant material by means of sifting and gravity and Berman-funnel techniques
 
SOS 302.2Soil Chemistry I (2 units)
The soil chemical composition, soil colloids, saline, alkaline, and acid soil properties, ion exchange,  cation exchange capacity, base saturation, chelating agents and soil organic matter. Laboratory exercises.
Practical: Determination of soil carbonates, organic matter content, extraction, fractionation, and characterization , exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, andESP determination, specific anion reactions, soil pH measurement, electricalconductivity measurement, exchangeable NO3-and NH4+determination.
 
AGX 301.2 Extension Teaching, Learning Methods and Processes (2 unit)
The nature and elements of communication; the meaning of the concepts of teaching, learning and motivation; steps and principles of teaching and learning; extension teaching methods; preparation and use of teaching materials and aids
 
GES 300.2: Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship (2 units)
Concept, history and development of entrepreneurship; The entrepreneur qualities and characteristics; The Entrepreneur and Business environment; identifying business opportunities; starting and developing new business ventures; legal forms of business ownership and registration; Types of business ownership; Feasibility studies; Role of small and Medium Scale Enterprise (SME) in the economy; Role of government on Entrepreneurship; Business location and layout; Accounting for SME; Financing SME; Managing of SME; Marketing in SME; Risk Management of SME; Success and Failure factors of SME; Prospects and Challenges of Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship; Ethical behaviour in small business.
 
CROP PROTECTION OPTION
YEAR FIVE (FIRST SEMESTER)
AGR 501.1 Experimentation Techniques (2 Units)
Experimental designs and field layout (CRD, RCBD, Other factorial experiments); their sources of variation and assumptions. Sampling techniques: plot sampling techniques, sampling units and sampling size; Experimental errors; types I and II; Data analysis; cropping systems experiments: Land Equivalent ratio; Analysis of variance (ANOVA) its assumptions. Data transformation (Log, Square root transformation, Arcsine; their assumptions). Analysis of missing data. Pair wise comparison (t-test). Parametric (LSD, DMRT, Studentized test, Scheffe’s test, Turkey’s test) and Non parametric (Kruskal Wallis, Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon-Signed rank-test); Regression and Correlation Analysis; conditions for use, assumptions and properties in linear regression, sources of variation in linear regression, interpretation and prediction of linear regression, interpretation and estimation of correlation co-efficient; Data handling and presentation-graphic, tables, etc.; Quantitative assessment of pesticide efficacy - Toxicological statistics. Experimental method; Determination of the critical toxic effects (ED50, LD50, LC50, KD50, LT50).
 
AGR 502.1: Advances in Agriculture (2 units)
Historical background, Principles (principles of health, fairness, ecology, care) and practice of organic agriculture; Organic crop production, pest and disease management, predator control for sustainable and organic livestock production. Organic forestry, climate change and carbon sequestration, pasture management. Enterprise budgets and production costs for organic production, organic marketing resources and green markets; Hydroponic Agriculture: Preparation of nutrient solutions, media and methods (water culture, sub irrigation, slop and drip). Benefits and constraints; Tissue Culture and Cloning Technology: Introduction, laboratory requirements, effects of hormone balance on explants growth and morphogenesis, callus formation and multiplication, establishment of suspension cultures and anther culture. Applications and relevance to Agriculture. Criticisms and laws (Bioethics and Biopiracy). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) (Health issues, influence on biodiversity, benefits and demerits); organic farm certification and export markets.
 
CPP 501.1 Weed Science (2 units)
Losses due to weeds;  problems associated with weed infestation; methods of weed control - cultural, physical, biological, mechanical, chemical, etc., major weeds of cultivated plants and crops, pasture and gardens; aquatic weeds, physiology of weeds; crop-weed-fertilizer interrelationship; classification of herbicides; chemistry and selectivity, formulation, application, storage and mode of action. Herbicides and the environment, safety factors in the use of herbicides. Application equipment and techniques, practical methods of controlling weed in Nigeria. 
Practical: identification of major weeds of the area; visit to nearby farms; fields experiment on weed-crop-fertilizer inter-relationship and weed control.
 
CPP 502.1 Crop Pathology (2 units)
History of plant pathology; importance of plant pathology in agriculture, general characteristics and classification of plant pathogens - fungi, bacteria, virus and mycoplasmas. Life history of representative plant pathogenic fungi responsible for important plant diseases, events in disease development, transmission of plant pathogens, major crop diseases (caused by animate and inanimate agents), Host-parasite interaction, factors affecting epiphytotics; predisposition, variability, physiologic specialization,  resistance and  susceptibility, structural and biochemical defenses. 
Practical: microscopic studies of fungi and phytopathogenic bacteria, identification of major diseases of cultivated plants.
 
CPP 503.1 Insect Ecology (2 units)
Interdependence between economic entomology and insect ecology; expressing population changes, populations and generation curves, mortality and survivals, etc. Factors affecting population fluctuations, processes regulating abundance. Life tables, inference from life table; forecasting outbreaks. 
Practical: life table, mark-release-recapture as a technique for monitoring changes in population, etc.
 
CPP 504.1 Applied Nematology (2 units)
Host-plant relations, life cycle, pathogenicity and control of nematodes attacking tropical crops; plant disorders due to nematodes activities, extractions and identification of plant and soil nematodes. 
Practical: teasing plant materials in water; Baermann funnel techniques and sieving technique; isolating, killing and fixing specimens and preparing microscopic slides for study and future references. 
 
CPP 505.1 Insect Pest Management (2 units)
Origin and nature of pest problems; life cycle and food habits of insects as basis for control measures. Insects and mites in the field and store; vectors of plants pathogens, crop ecosystem management and insects relationship to plant pathogen, weed and bird control. Control techniques including cultural, physical, legislative and microbial control; entomophagous insects and biological control. Integrated pest management- its concept, application and economic considerations. 
Practical. Detailed studies of feeding stage and food habits with particular reference to crop and storage pest, laboratory studies of selected pests and field collections.
 
CPS 512.1 Farming Systems (2 units)
Phases of agricultural development, salient characteristics of different farming systems, shifting and semi-shifting cultivation, development of continuous cropping, mono-cropping, inter-cropping, multiple-cropping, crop rotation, dry land farming, contour farming, alley farming, Fadama farming, transition from traditional to modern agricultural system to semi-intensive and intensive cropping system; components of farming system, mushroom farming, economics of crop production, modern agriculture and green revolution in developing countries.  
Practical: field experiment in the University farm on different cropping system; field trip to various part of the country to study the different cropping systems.
 
CPP 500.2 Seminar (1 unit) 
Each final year student is expected to deliver seminar on a chosen topic.
 
YEAR FIVE (SECOND SEMESTER)
CPP 599.2 Research Project (6 units)
Each final year student must undertake a research project under the supervision of a lecturer(s), propose a topic and present findings of the research work. 
 
CPP 506.2 Pesticides and their application (2 units)
Classification, chemistry, formulation and selectivity of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc., their toxicity and mode of action; phytotoxicity, pest resurgence, pest resistance and environmental hazards, pesticides behaviour in soils; microbial pesticides. Pesticide application methods and equipment. Practical: experiments to demonstrate selectivity, toxicity, phytotoxicity and other properties of pesticides.
 
 
CPP 507.2 Agricultural Entomology (2 units)
Insects in relation to selected tropical crops; pest description and biology in relation to major cash crops, field, horticultural and tree crops in Nigeria. 
Practical: observation of insects attacking important crops in Nigeria, their life cycles; extent of damage; field trips to local farms to make observations. 
 
 
 
CPP 508.2 Crop Disease Control (2 units)
General principles of crop disease control - physical, biological, cultural, chemical, mechanical, etc. disease cycle; symptoms and control of important diseases of cereals (maize, sorghum, pearl millet, rice, wheat) grain legumes (groundnuts, cowpea, soybean, etc.), root and tubers (yam, cassava, cocoyam, etc.,) sugarcane, tree crops, horticultural crops. 
Practical: Collection and identification of diseased crops; application of fungicides and bactericides. 
 
CPP 509.2 Pests of Stored Products   2 units.
Types of stored crops; Storage structures; Assessment of loss of stored crops. Biology, ecology and management of insect, mite and vertebrate pests (major families of pest beetles and moths; acarines; rodents, etc) and disease organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) affecting stored crops. Abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, light, moisture, etc.) which influence the storage environment. 
Practical: identification and classification of major insect, fungi, vertebrate pests of stored crops; use of selected pesticide in storage. 
 
CROP PRODUCTION OPTION
 
YEAR FIVE (FIRST SEMESTER)
CPS 510.1 Forage and Fodder Crop Production (2 units)
Adaptation and botany of indigenous and introduced pastures and forage plants. Characteristics of grasses, legumes and shrubs.  Establishment, propagation and seed production of pasture plants; the utilization and maintenance of permanent and temporary pastures. Forage conservation; Grazing systems. 
Practical: collection and identification of forage crops.  
CPP 501.1 Weed Science (2 units)
Losses due to weeds;  problems associated with weed infestation; methods of weed control - cultural, physical, biological, mechanical, chemical, etc., major weeds of cultivated plants and crops, pasture and gardens; aquatic weeds, physiology of weeds; crop-weed-fertilizer interrelationship; classification of herbicides; chemistry and selectivity, formulation, application, storage and mode of action. Herbicides and the environment, safety factors in the use of herbicides. Application equipment and techniques, practical methods of controlling weed in Nigeria. 
Practical: identification of major weeds of the area; visit to nearby farms; fields experiment on weed-crop-fertilizer inter-relationship and weed control.
AGR 501.1 Experimentation Techniques (2 Units)
Experimental designs and field layout (CRD, RCBD, Other factorial experiments); their sources of variation and assumptions. Sampling techniques: plot sampling techniques, sampling units and sampling size; Experimental errors; types I and II; Data analysis; cropping systems experiments: Land Equivalent ratio; Analysis of variance (ANOVA) its assumptions. Data transformation (Log, Square root transformation, Arcsine; their assumptions). Analysis of missing data. Pair wise comparison (t-test). Parametric (LSD, DMRT, Studentized test, Scheffe’s test, Turkey’s test) and Non parametric (Kruskal Wallis, Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon-Signed rank-test); Regression and Correlation Analysis; conditions for use, assumptions and properties in linear regression, sources of variation in linear regression, interpretation and prediction of linear regression, interpretation and estimation of correlation co-efficient; Data handling and presentation-graphic, tables, etc.; Quantitative assessment of pesticidal efficacy - Toxicological statistics. Experimental method; Determination of the critical toxic effects (ED50, LD50, LC50, KD50, LT50).
AGR 502.1: Advances in Agriculture (2 units)
Historical background, Principles (principles of health, fairness, ecology, care) and practice of organic agriculture; Organic crop production, pest and disease management, predator control for sustainable and organic livestock production. Organic forestry, climate change and carbon sequestration, pasture management. Enterprise budgets and production costs for organic production, organic marketing resources and green markets; Hydroponic Agriculture: Preparation of nutrient solutions, media and methods (water culture, sub irrigation, slop and drip). Benefits and constraints; Tissue Culture and Cloning Technology: Introduction, laboratory requirements, effects of hormone balance on explants growth and morphogenesis, callus formation and multiplication, establishment of suspension cultures and anther culture. Applications and relevance to Agriculture. Criticisms and laws (Bioethics and Biopiracy). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) (Health issues, influence on biodiversity, benefits and demerits); organic farm certification and export markets.
 
CPS 512.1 Farming Systems (2 units)
Phases of agricultural development, salient characteristics of different farming systems, shifting and semi-shifting cultivation, development of continuous cropping, mono-cropping, inter-cropping, multiple-cropping, crop rotation, dry land farming, contour farming, alley farming, Fadama farming, transition from traditional to modern agricultural system to semi-intensive and intensive cropping system; components of farming system, mushroom farming, economics of crop production, modern agriculture and green revolution in developing countries.  
Practical: field experiment in the University farm on different cropping system; field trip to various part of the country to study the different cropping systems.
 
CPS 513.1 Plant Breeding and Seed Production (2 units)
Genetic significance of reproductive systems in cultivated plants.  Sexual reproduction in crop plants, selection methods in breeding programmes.  The role of plant breeding in disease and pest control in crops.  Maintenance of breeding stocks.  Nature and structures of seeds.  Seed certification and release to the farmers.  Certified seed multiplication and distribution to the farmers.
 
CPS 514.1 Floriculture and Landscaping (2 units)
Vegetable crop prduction, and other horticultural crops including nuts, spices, and medicinal plants; Principles and techniques of sexual and asexual propagation with special reference to indigenous/tropical ornamental plants.  Importance and classification of tropical and sub-tropical annual flower plants, principles of floriculture and landscaping; landscaping of public parks and institutions; establishment and maintenance of hedges and lawns. 
Practical:  practices in common propagation methods, cutting, budding, grafting; layering and inarching techniques; identification of common ornamental flowering plants, planning of flower gardens and their layout.
CPS 515.1 Crop Physiology and Production (2 units)
Water, light, temperature and gases as factors of environment, growth phases and rhythms in crop; assimilate partitioning in relation to yield determination, crop geometry, cultural manipulation; plant growth regulators in crop production; photoperiodism and vernalization in crops and their effects on crop introduction and production. Ecophysiology, physiology of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and combined nitrogen; physiology of tuber formation and multiplication; plant-water relations; dormancy, mineral nutrition, physiology of herbicides; physiological aspects of pollution (Environmental impact assessment, EIA on crops). 
Practical: experiments on different growth phases of few selected crops, use of growth regulating chemicals at different stages of growth and their effects, experiments on photoperiodism, experiments on pollution.
 
YEAR FIVE (SECOND SEMESTER)
CPS 500.2 Seminar (1 unit) 
Each final year student is expected to deliver seminar on a chosen topic.
CPS 516.2 Post-harvest Physiology and Product Storage (2 units)
Storage life of harvested fruits, seeds, vegetables and flowers; tropical environment in relation to maturity, ripening and senescence.  Physical and chemical indices of quality in fruits, seeds, vegetables and other crop products.  Storage of crop materials.  Traditional methods of vegetable processing and storage.  Fundamentals and principles of crop storage and transportation.  Storage and shelf life problems, ideal atmosphere for storing fruits, seeds, vegetables, flowers and other crop products.  Controlled environment for transit and long term storage; protective treatment, design and operation of equipment for storage and preservation. 
Practical: traditional and modern methods of processing and preservation of indigenous vegetables and fruits. 
 
CPS 517.2 Vegetable Crop Production (2 units) 
Definition, scope and importance. Production Practices (Outdoor and Protected Culture) including vegetable processing, marketing and distribution, sexual and asexual propagation 
Practical:  Grow indigenous vegetables. Practice asexual propagation methods.
 
SOS 509.2 Fertilizers and their uses (2 units)
Fertilizers and their management, Nutrient uptake, utilization and deficiency symptoms; fertilizer sources, properties and reactions; and fertilization practices. Fertilizer manufacture, sources, application methods , rates and timing. Handling and storage of  fertilizers, crop growth and response to nutrients.
Practical: formulation of compound fertilizer, application, pot/field experiment.
 
CPP 506.2 Pesticides and their application (2 units)
Classification, chemistry, formulation and selectivity of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc., their toxicity and mode of action; phytotoxicity, pest resurgence, pest resistance and environmental hazards, pesticides behaviour in soils; microbial pesticides. Pesticide application methods and equipment. 
Practical: experiments to demonstrate selectivity, toxicity, phytotoxicity and other properties of pesticides.
 
CPS 518.2 Agronomy of Neglected Crops (2 units)
Origin, distribution and importance of neglected crops (Ukazi, Uziza - West African black pepper, Water leaf, Oil bean,  Dawa dawa - Locust bean tree, Ukpo), etc.; Climatic and soil requirements, cultural operations, methods of propagation, harvesting, handling and storage of some major neglected crops of great potentials in Nigerian species, medicinal, food crops, plantation crops, etc.
CPS 599.2 Research Project (6 units)
Each final year student must undertake a research project under the supervision of a lecturer(s), propose a topic and present findings of the research work. 
 
SOIL SCIENCE OPTION
YEAR FIVE (FIRST SEMESTER)
SOS 501.1Soil Chemistry II (2 units)
Introduction to basic chemistry concepts, atoms and elements,compounds, molecules, and atomic bonds, ions, elements needed by plants,chemical reactions, adsorption  and absorption, organic/ organic, soil colloids: definition, importance, soil solution,cation exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation, factors influencing CEC,significance, anion exchange, pH,effect of pH on nutrient availability and uptake, soil acidity; distribution of acid soils, problems associated with acidityand liming. Reclamation of acidic/sodic soil. 
SOS 502.1Soil Physics (2 units)
Physical properties of soil, size groupings, surface relationship, specific surface of soil particle. Genesis  of compound structure, effects of texture on soil structure, soil tilth  and tillage, soil consistency, soil air and aeration, dynamic properties of soils, soil thermal properties, soil temperature, soil heat capacity, heat flow through soil. Determination of soil water content, properties of soil water, energy state of soil water, saturated and unsaturated flow, infiltration and infiltration equations, redistribution of soil water. 
Practical: Laboratory and field measurements of soil physical properties (infiltration, water retention curves, aggregate stability etc.). 
 
SOS 503.1 Soil – Water - Plant relations (2 units)
Soil characteristics, soil water, soil salinity and its effect on plant growth, nitrogen, sulphur, carbon, phosphorus cycle. Hysteresis, capillary rise of soil water. Watermovement in soils. Field capacity, the continuous chain forrelationship between soil-water-plant-atmosphere. Soil colloids; their natureand practical significance to plant growth regulators. Soil stabilizers,macro and micronutrientelements and plant growth, Plant water consumption andwilting point.
 
 
SOS 504.1Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition (2 units)
Factors affecting plant growth – Edaphic, climatic, etc. Mathematical models of plant response to nutritional factors - Forms of plant nutrients in Soils - Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of nutrient status in Soils - Available forms and their evaluation using biological and chemical methods including isotope techniques. Plant nutrients definition, classification, and role(s) in plant metabolism. Nutrient absorption-mechanisms and dynamics, competition and factors affecting them. Nutrient translocation in plants – pathways, mechanisms, regulations. - Factors affecting plant nutrition, correcting nutritional disorders.
Practical: Identification of various symptoms of nutrient deficiencies, identification of fertilizers and calculations. 
 
AGR 501.1 Experimentation Techniques (2 Units)
Experimental designs and field layout (CRD, RCBD, Other factorial experiments); their sources of variation and assumptions. Sampling techniques: plot sampling techniques, sampling units and sampling size; Experimental errors; types I and II; Data analysis; cropping systems experiments: Land Equivalent ratio; Analysis of variance (ANOVA) its assumptions. Data transformation (Log, Square root transformation, Arcsine; their assumptions). Analysis of missing data. Pair wise comparison (t-test). Parametric (LSD, DMRT, Studentized test, Scheffe’s test, Turkey’s test) and Non parametric (Kruskal Wallis, Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon-Signed rank-test); Regression and Correlation Analysis; conditions for use, assumptions and properties in linear regression, sources of variation in linear regression, interpretation and prediction of linear regression, interpretation and estimation of correlation co-efficient; Data handling and presentation-graphic, tables, etc.; Quantitative assessment of pesticidal efficacy - Toxicological statistics. Experimental method; Determination of the critical toxic effects (ED50, LD50, LC50, KD50, LT50).
 
SOS 505.1Soil Microbiology (2 units)
Soil microbiological communities. Factors affecting microbial communities in soil; Collection and processing of microbial soil samples; Composting; Biofertilization - Rhizobial inoculation, mycorrhizal fungal inoculation; Biocontrol by soil bacteria and soil fungi. Genetic modification of microbial inocula; Microbial ecology of polluted soils; Soil ecological effects of genetically modified microbes; Degradation of xenobiotics; Bioremediation in contaminated soils; Environmental modification for bioremediation; Bioremediation efficacy testing; Microbial leaching of metals in soils; Management of the Nitrogen cycle in agriculture; Microbial decomposition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
 
 
SOS 506.1Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (2 units)
Basic principles of soil classification;Soil profile study and description; soil survey methodology; soil forming minerals; Soil forming factors; assemblage of maps;use of aerial photographs,topographic maps, field survey versus grid survey; field mapping; soil morphological investigations. Land capability classifications for various purposes, land potential assesment.
Practical: laboratory determinations; soil correlation; soil survey, mapping and report writing, interpretive reports, land use planning/management
 
SOS 507.1Soil and Plant Analysis (2 units)
Soil and plant sampling, sample preparation; theories and procedures for chemical analysis of soil and plant materials. Soil analysis (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, organic carbon, calcium magnesium etc), determination of soil pH. Plant analysis (basic plant nutrients). Interpretation of data. Maintainance and operations of major analytical instruments; flame photometer,colorimeter, spectrophotometer, amino acid analyzer, pH meters;conductivity bridge;gas systems for monitoring analytical procedures; features and functions of a soil testing laboratory.
AGR 502.1: Advances in Agriculture (2 units)
Historical background, Principles (principles of health, fairness, ecology, care) and practice of organic agriculture; Organic crop production, pest and disease management, predator control for sustainable and organic livestock production. Organic forestry, climate change and carbon sequestration, pasture management. Enterprise budgets and production costs for organic production, organic marketing resources and green markets; Hydroponic Agriculture: Preparation of nutrient solutions, media and methods (water culture, sub irrigation, slop and drip). Benefits and constraints; Tissue Culture and Cloning Technology: Introduction, laboratory requirements, effects of hormone balance on explants growth and morphogenesis, callus formation and multiplication, establishment of suspension cultures and anther culture. Applications and relevance to Agriculture. Criticisms and laws (Bioethics and Biopiracy). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) (Health issues, influence on biodiversity, benefits and demerits); organic farm certification and export markets.
 
 
YEAR FIVE (SECOND SEMESTER)
SOS 500.2 Seminar (1unit)
Presentation of a seminar on an approved current topic in soil science.
 
SOS 599.2 Research Project (6 units)
Each final year student must undertake a research project under the supervision of a lecturer(s), propose a topic and present findings of the research work. 
 
SOS 508.2Soil Classification (2 units)
The study of soil genesis, classification, and geomorphology / evolution of soils, their organization into natural units and their distribution throughout the world. Physical, chemical, and morphological soil characteristics. Processes that influence the development of soils- biological, physical, and chemical, soil forming factors, distribution of the soils of the world. soil morphology,soil taxonomy, diagnostic epipedons and subsurface horizons, soil orders, suborders, great groups, subgroups, families, and seriessoil forming reactions, soil forming factors, major soils of the world: their genesis and distribution. 
Practical: description of soil profile pit
 
SOS 509.2 Fertilizers and their uses (2 units)
Fertilizers and their management, Nutrient uptake, utilization and deficiency symptoms; fertilizer sources, properties and reactions; and fertilization practices. Fertilizer manufacture, sources, application methods , rates and timing. Handling and storage of  fertilizers, crop growth and response to nutrients.Practical: formulation of compound fertilizer, application, pot/field experiment.
SOS 510.2 Remote Sensing and GIS (2 units)
Definition ofremote sensing; History, evolution, and basic principles and vocabulary; Electromagnetic radiation and its interaction: foundation and principles of remote sensing. Remote sensing techniques, photogrametry; sensors (multispectral and hyperspectral);Electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurement of soil electrical conductivity (EC);Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR); Thermal infrared imaging/thermography;Lidar (light detection and ranging) SAR: Synthetic Aperture Radar; Passive microwave radiometry; Passive gamma ray spectrometry; etc. Ground, aerial, and satellite/space platforms, Soil characterization (e.g., mineralogy, moisture, organic matter etc. ) and mapping,Land use/Land cover; Precision Agriculture: Topographic mapping, Wetland restoration, Water quality; On-site waste disposal,Famine Early Warning Systems (FEWS),Post-harvest processing applications.
 
SOS 511.2 Irrigation and Drainage (2units)
Types of irigation; costs and profitability of irrigation; application of irrigation to different crops. Soil-water-plant- atmosphere relationships;  crop water requirements  (meteorological approach and critical growth stages for water of different field crops) scheduling irrigation for major crops; time of irrigation; agronomic management of irrigated crops;crop rotations and sequence under irrigated conditions, evaporation losses of irrigation water,maintainance of irrigation equipments, drainage.
 
SOS 512.2 Soil Conservation and Remediation (2 units)
Meaning and significance of soil conservation, causes, agents, and types of soil erosion, factors influencing soil erosion, quantitative and qualitative estimation of soil loss, erosivity and erodibility, problems of soil erosion, erosion control techniques, restoration of eroded lands, wind erosion, soil degradation, remediation of degraded land, administrative and  legislation measures to prevent land degradation, including oil spills. Bioremediation, phytoremediation, etc. Sources of salts in soil, salinesoil, alkali soil, leaching factor, water balance and salt balance relationship, SAR, ESR, ESP, water quality criteria. Threshold concentration, chemical amendments. 
Practical:  Field trips to regions with saline problems and oil pollution, analysis of water and soil samples, construction of runoff plots.
 
CPP 506.2 Pesticides and their application (2 units)
Classification, chemistry, formulation and selectivity of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc., their toxicity and mode of action; phytotoxicity, pest resurgence, pest resistance and environmental hazards, pesticides behaviour in soils; microbial pesticides. Pesticide application methods and equipment. 
Practical: experiments to demonstrate selectivity, toxicity, phytotoxicity and other properties of pesticides.
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