Department of Plant Science & Biotechnology

Department of Plant Science & Biotechnology

Name of Department:                      

Department of Plant Science & Biotechnology
Name of Ag. Head Of Department:   

Dr. F. B. G. Tanee
Contact E-mail:                                    

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Contact Phone Number(s):              

08035426615

 

INTRODUCTION
 
The Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology started as the Botany discipline in the School of Biological Sciences of the University of Port Harcourt
in 1999.  On the 1st  of October 1983, the School system was changed to the faculty system with the creation of the Faculty of Science. The former Schools of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences formed the component parts of the Faculty. In  1998,  the  name  of  the  programme  was  changed  from
'Botany' to 'Plant Science and Biotechnology'. The Faculty of Science was transformed into the Collegiate system with the name 'College of Natural and Applied Science' headed by a Provost in 2012 – a reflection of the growth recorded in over 25 years of her existence. However, in 2015 the collegiate system was reverted back to the faculty system.
 
Philosophy
The philosophy of the programme is to endow our graduates with the lucid knowledge and sound understanding of the concepts and techniques of Plant Science and Biotechnology to meet critical societal needs pertaining to plant life. All aspects of human existence including food security, shelter, medicines and environmental regeneration are touched on by the sustenance of plant biodiversity therefore the student of the programme is exposed to the body of knowledge  to meet these needs.
This is in keeping with the National Universities Commission (NUC) statement on Minimum Academic Standards (MAS). In the formation of the curriculum, care has been taken to ensure that the appropriate courses are taught at any given level of exposure. The students are provided with a broad-based exposure to knowledge that produces a well-rounded individual fit to take up responsibilities at the higher-level labour needs of the nation.
The undergraduate programme leads to award of Bachelor of Science
(Honours) degrees in Plant Science and Biotechnology
 
 
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE DEPARTMENT ARE:
The objectives of the programme are:
(a)  To advance knowledge in Plant Science and Biotechnology in order to enhance the skills and expertise required for self-reliance and gainful employment;
(b) To provide a good academic environment as a necessity in preparing the students for scholarship and service;
c)To educate the students on the importance of “Research and Development” using the concepts and techniques of Plant Science and Biotechnology for the development of our immediate community and the nation; and,
(d)  To enable the students acquire knowledge through the broad- based training in relation to the BMAS as required by the National Universities Commission (NUC), thereby making our graduates competitive in various challenges and ventures.
 
Generally, the overarching objective of the programme is to groom graduates with sound understanding of the basic and applied aspects of Plant Science, Plant Biotechnology and Environmental Plant Science. These are expected to come out with high prospects of fulfilled careers in relevant aspects of our national economy.
 
THE JOB PROSPECTS OF THE PROGRAMME
There exists a plethora of career/job opportunities for graduates of the programme including the Oil and Gas Industry (from exploration  to  prevention  of  pollution),  Pharmaceutical Industries   and   Laboratories,   Chemical   and  Agrochemical establishments,  Police  Departments,  Conservation,  Teaching  and Research Institutes (e.g. University, NIFOR, IITA, NIHORT, and FIIRO  etc).  Others  are  Government  Ministries  and  Agencies  - NABDA, Customs & Excise, Environmental Protection Agencies (NESREA,   NOSDRA),  Agricultural   and   Natural   Resources Management  Concerns,  Banks, Agriculture/Insurance  Companies, Agricultural Estates, Consultancy Services, Tissue Culture and Micro propagation.  The   department   has   produced   many   prominent personalities both in Government and in the organized private sector. The Department is well endowed with highly qualified scientists as lecturers, kind and friendly administrative and technical staff who are ever willing to help students build a future. This is reflected in the high number of our staff engaged in numerous extra curricula activities in and outside the University of Port Harcourt.
 
We have adequately equipped laboratories and highly trained technical members of staff that are happy to assist students in the safe and proper use of equipment.   The department provides a platform hands-on training alongside peer interaction and review for our students and those in similar courses of other universities through field trips and excursions.  Moreover, students are encouraged to belong to the approved professional association (National Association of Plant Science and Biotechnology Students).
 
We hold sacrosanct the three-month Industrial exposure period for our students to benefit from the Students Industrial Work Experience (SIWES). This is a worthwhile avenue for our students to identify, meet and interact with prospective employers and acquire requisite experiences and work ethics outside the classroom.
 
The department also participates in the Basic Studies programme, Post ACE/NCE Sandwich programmes, School of Science Laboratory Technology (SSLT) Programmes other certificate courses.
 
Approval has been obtained to expand our departmental Botanic Garden which we expect to be provided with state-of-the art facilities equipped with standard Herbarium, Green/Screen houses, arboretum, etc for outdoor/field experiments.
 
The department also offers graduate programmes leading to award of Postgraduate Diploma. Other graduate degree programmes are: Master of Science (MSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Plant Ecology; Plant Taxonomy, Cytogenetics and Biosystematics, Plant Physiology and Mycology and Plant Pathology
UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME
The minimum requirement for admission into the undergraduate programme in the department, in accordance with the minimum academic standards of the National Universities Commission (NUC) is the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE), National Examination Council (NECO), General Certificate of Education (GCE) and any other approved equivalent qualification with credit passes in at least FIVE (5) subjects.    The subjects must include E N G L I S H   L A N G U A G E ,   M AT H E M AT I C S ,   B I O L O G Y, CHEMISTRYAND PHYSICS.
 
Admission into the degree programme will normally be through the Joint Matriculation Examination (JME) in English Language, Mathematics or Physics, Chemistry and Biology.  However, students from Educational Less Developed States who are otherwise qualified but do not meet the JME cut-off may be admitted into the Basic Studies Programme of the University for a one-year Pre-Bachelor Degree Programme.  Students  who  came  into  the  department  through 'Supplementary Admission or Basic Studies Programme Will Not Be Permitted To Change to another Department'.
 
Students who desire to come into the department must have CGPA of at least 3.5. Any student found with false credentials will automatically loose his/her provisional admission. THE MINIMUM PERIOD FOR GRADUATION IN THE DEPARTMENT is 4 (FOUR) and a MAXIMUM OF 6 (SIX) YEARS. At the expiration of the 6th year, any student with more than two failed courses outstanding shall FAIL OUT.  To obtain a degree in the University of Port Harcourt students must complete and pass ALL courses approved and specified for the programme by the department. Students are not to repeat any passed course.
 
UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME
YEAR ONE    1ST  SEMESTER
1. GES 100.00 – COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH
The course seeks to develop in the students, a well-informed attitude to the English Language and to equip them with the knowledge of English communication and study skills that will facilitate their work in the University and beyond including ICT skills for use in a modern library. (3 Units)
 
2. FSB 101.1 – GENERAL BIOLOGY I
Characteristics of life.   Investigations in Biology, the scientific method; the substance of life, the unit of life (including methods of study); activities of cells, the control of metabolic activities; basic principles of inheritance (Genetics), Evolution. (3 Units)
 
 
3. CHM 130.1 - GENERAL CHEMISTRY I
Basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist's point of view. A broad based course suitable for students from various schools as well as those from the Faulty of Science.  Topics to be covered will include atomic theory and molecular structure, stoichemistry, the periodic classification of the elements, atomic structure, chemical bonding, properties of gases, solids, liquids and solutions, chemical equilibrium, ionic equilibrium, chemical thermodynamics, electro-chemistry and chemical kinetics. (3 Units)
 
4. MTH 120.1 – CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY/CALCULUS The straight line, parallel and perpendicular lines, angle between two straight lines, the distance of points from a line, parametric equations, tangent and normal, limits and continuity.   Differentiability, the derivative of simple algebraic functions, rules of differentiation, maxima and minima, integration       as the inverse of differentiation. Integration as the limits of a sum, areas under the curves, volumes.
 
5. PHY 101.1 – INTRODUCTION TO MECHNICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Topics covered in this course will include the following: - Motion in one plane, work and energy, conservation laws, collisions, solid friction, rotational kinematics rotational dynamics, equilibrium of rigid bodies, oscillations, gravitation, fluid statics, and fluid dynamics. Surface tension, viscosity and hydrostatics. (3 Units)
 
6. GES 102.1 – INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY
A brief survey of the scope, notions, branches, and problems of philosophy symbolic logic, specific symbols in symbolic logic. Conjunction  negation,  disjunction,  equivalence  and  conditional statements.  Law of thought.  The method of deduction, using rule of inference and bicondition. Quantitative theory. (2 Units)
 
YEAR ONE      2ND  SEMESTER
1. GES 103.2 – NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE
The course shall be an introduction to the students the basic themes in early human development in Africa with emphasis on Nigeria through imperialism to independence; the themes of imperialism and underdevelopment in Africa; Colonial and neo-colonial development experience of Nigeria and Other selected African countries. It shall also involve dialective on the evolution of man in Africa.  I.e. early man in Nigeria and the cultural achievement and heritage. Early politics in Nigeria up to the British conquest (2 Units)
 
2. FSB 102.2 – GENERAL BIOLOGY II
Variety of organisms.   Principles of classification of organisms. Systematic study of selected animal and plant groups. Analysis of the flora and fauna of assigned habitats. (3 Units)
 
3. CHM 131.2 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY II
Application of the principles of chemical and physical change to the study of the behaviour of matter and the interaction between matter. Course content includes the chemistry of the representative elements and their common compounds with emphasis on gradation of their properties.  Brief chemistry of the first series of transition.  General principles of extraction of metals, introductory nuclear chemistry (3
Units)
 
 
4.  CHM  132.2  –  INTRODUCTION  TO  PRINCIPLES  OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
A survey of carbon compounds including an overview of the common functional groups in aliphatic and benzoic compounds. Introduction to reactants and reactions in organic chemistry. (3 Units)
 
5. PHY 115.2 – HEAT, LIGHT AND SOUND
Thermometry, calorimetry, and heat transfer.  Geometrical optics will include reflection of light at the plane and curved surfaces and optical instruments.   Properties and propagation of sound waves.   Sound waves propagating in air columns. Doppler Effect. (2 Units)
 
6.   GES   101.2   –   C OMPU TER   A PPR EC I ATI ON   A N D APPLICATION
History of computers. Generalizations and classification of computers. IPO model of a computer. Components of a computer system – hardware and software; software and its application. Programme language, organization of data. Data computer techniques. Introduction to computer networks; use of the keyboard as an input device, DOS, Windows, Word-processing, Spreadsheets. Application of computers in Medicine, Social Sciences, Humanities, Education and Management Sciences (2 Units)
 
7. GLY 101.2 – PLANET EARTH
The course teaches the student the following: Origin of the universe and the solar system. Structure and composition of the earth. The common rock-forming minerals. The major rock groups. Elements of structural geology and Crystallography. Surface processes (Weathering, Erosion, Transportation, and Deposition). Elements of Historical  geology,  Palaeontology  and  Stratigraphy.  Concepts  of P a l e o g e o g r a p h y,   P a l e o c l i m a t o l o g y,   P a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t ,Paleoceanography and Paleomagnetism. Introduction to concepts of continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
 
YEAR TWO     1ST  SEMESTER
1. FSB 201.1  CELL BIOLOGY
Modern concepts relating to the cell.    A study of the molecular organization, function, and assembly of eukaryotic cell components, including membrane and membranous organelles, ribosomes, cilia and flagella, microtubules, Microfilaments, nucleoli and chromosomes, metabolic energy, cellular dynamics. (3 Units)
 
2. MCB 200.1 - GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
History and development of microbiology.  Medical characteristics of microorganisms, growth and reproduction.  Principles of sterilization and disinfection.    Problems of infectivity.    Brief survey of microorganisms as friends and foes.   Anti-microbial agents and sensitivity tests (3 Units)
 
3. CHM 280.1 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1
Fundamental theories and principles of chemical reactivity. Chemical reactions and synthesis of monofunctional compound.  Reactions and mechanism of common reactions. Stereochemistry. (3 Units)
 
4. BCH 210.1 - GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY I
Acidity and alkalinity pH and pKa values and their effects on cellular activities.   Buffers.   Chemistry of amino acids, proteins and their derivatives; methods of isolation and identification. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Determination and biochemical/application of the structures, chemistry and structure of carbohydrates; their nomenclature. Chirality. (3 Units)
 
 
5 .   C S C   2 8 0 . 1   –   I N T R O D U C T I O N   TO   C O M P U T E R PROGRAMMING
Historical details of computers. Principles of programming. Programming with FORTRAN Language (3 Units)
 
6. PSB 202.1 – SOIL SCIENCE & HORTICULTURE
Soil formation: Soil composition/components/systems.   Inorganic mineral particles contents, soil solution, soil atmosphere; soil fauna and soil flora and their role in soil fertility; soil organic matter content and soil fertility. Horticultural principles and practices, selection, planting, establishment, nutrition, pests and disease control; and other maintenance considerations for selected horticultural plants, uses of horticultural plants scope and development of horticultural industry. (3
Units)
 
 
7.  PSB  201.1  –  STRUCTURE  AND  FUNCTION  OF  SEED PLANTS
The main structural and functional features of adult plant and its parts – leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. These structures are treated in relation to functions such as plant/water relations, nutrition, photosynthesis, respiration, growth and development, reproduction and movement. (3 Units)
 
YEAR TWO    2ND  SEMESTER
 
1. FSB 202.2 - GENETICS I
Heritable and non-heritable characteristics. Mendelian genetics. Gene interactions, quantitative genetics. Extrachromosomal inheritance. Sex determinations, linkage and recombination in eukaryotes. Introduction to recombination in prokaryotes. Chromosome number, structure, and behaviour; variations in ploidy level chromosome number and chromosome behaviour. (3 Units)
 
 
2. FSB 203.2 – BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
Procedure for collection, identification and preservation of biological specimens.  Wax embedding techniques.   Photometry. Colorimetry, chromatography. Electrophoresis. Conductometry, Experimental design. (2 Units)
 
3. FSB 204.2 – GENERAL ECOLOGY
Ecological factors and cycles, Ecosystem and energy flow, water and nutrient budgets. Population attributes (treatment to include analysis of variance) and organization and dynamics of ecological communities in soil, fresh water and sea. Succession and climax. Ecological methods. Man and the biosphere. Increase in human population and its consequences. (3 Units)
 
4. PSB 206.2 SEEDLESS PLANTS
Morphology, range of structure, physiology and reproduction of algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes. (2 Units)
 
5. MTH 264.2 STATISTICS FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Use of statistical methods in biology and agriculture. Frequency distributions. Laws of probability. The binomial, Poisson and normal probability distributions. Estimations and tests of hypothesis. The binomial design of simple agricultural and biological experiments. Analysis of variance and covariance, simple regression and correlation, contingency tables. Some non-parametric tests.
 
6. AEB 200.2 – LOWER INVERTEBRATES (PROTOZOA, PORIFERA COELENTERATA, HELMINTHS, MINOR ACOELOMATES)
Gross,  microscopic  and  ultra  structures,  locomotion,  Nutrition,metabolism, Growth, Reproduction of Rhizopods, flagellates, Sporozoans and ciliates, Ecology of protozoa, parasitic and symbiotic protozoa. Morphology, Anatomy, Taxonomy; Life histories and some aspects of the physiology and behaviours of Turbellaria, Trematoda, Nematode and Acanthocephalids. Brief discussion of Gastrotrichia, Rotifera, Kinohynoha and Gnathostomulida. (3 Units)
 
7. FSC 2CS.2 – COMMUNITY SERVICE ELECTIVE
The course is directed towards service to the Nigerian community especially to the immediate environment. Students are exposed in a practical way to some of the local problems facing the community in and around the university, with the purpose of providing solutions to them. It may involve manual labour, gardening, decoration, awareness programmes, or any service which could be moderated by the Central Community Service of the University. (1 Unit)
 
8. PSB 205.2 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 1
Water absorption, Transpiration, Stomatal movement, Mineral nutrition, Active uptake of ions, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Transport systems in Plants, Dormancy, Germination, Juvenility, maturation, senescence & Death, Tropisms, Flowering. (2 Units)
 
YEAR THREE   1ST SEMESTER
1. PSB 300.1 – MYCOLOGY
Morphology,  taxonomy,  physiology,  reproduction  and  ecological characteristics of various groups of fungi. (3 Units)
 
2. PSB 301.1 – COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF SEED PLANTS
A  comparative  study  of  the  structure  and  growth  of  meristems including origin of meristems, classification of meristems, pattern of growth and function, theories of special organization.  The quiescent center and cell determination.  Development, structure and functions of important cell types in the plant body.  Tissues and tissue systems including structure and functions of various tissues in the plant body as well as their pattern of development. Differentiation, comparative anatomy of the stem, root leaf, and flower in various groups of plants. Anatomical modifications and developmental changes imposed by the environment. (2 Units)
 
3. FSB 301.1– GENETICS II
Mutation. Recombination in prokaryotes and viruses. Sex-linked inheritance. Elements of human genetics; inborn errors of metabolism; blood group polymorphism; medical genetics; pedigree analysis. Introductory cytogenetics. Genetic engineering; cloning and recombinant DNA technology. Introduction to population genetics (3
Units)
 
 
4. PSB 306.1 – PLANT ECOLOGY
A survey of the structure and functions of the major vegetation types of Nigeria and world. Methods of surveying and measuring vegetation aspects of paleoecology. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant communities, pattern ordination and classification. Analysis of vegetation and environmental factor relationships. Grassland management. Analysis of competition in plant communities. (2 Units)
 
5. PSB 308.1 – PLANT PHYSIOLOGY II
Growth physiology. Dynamics of growth and development. Pattern of growth. Factors affecting growth morphogenesis, morphogenetic phenomenon   and morphogenetic factors. Physiological effects of hormonal action, auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins ethylene, inhibitors.
 
 
Physiology of some special organisms, tree physiology and physiology of angiosperm parasites. (2 Units)
 
6. PSB 305.1 – PLANT TAXONOMY
Basic taxonomic concepts. History of taxonomy. Nomenclature classification and identification. Key construction. Rules of International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Collection, storage, and retrieval of taxonomic evidence. Character and character states. Systematic lines of taxonomic evidence including anatomy, biosystematics, cytology, genetics, gross morphology, histochemistry, p a l y n o l o g y,   p h y s i o l o g y,   p h y t o c h e m i s t r y   ( a l s o   c a l l e d chemotaxonomy), and phytogeography. (3 Units)
 
7. PSB 307.1 – FIELD COURSE I/WEED SCIENCE
Definition of a weed. Factors allowing weeds to compete successfully. How weeds spread.  Practical problems associated with the growth of terrestrial and aquatic weeds.  Methods of weed control.  The biology of selected weeds of importance in the tropics. Sampling methods and techniques in local habitats and application of statistical methods to research situations.(1 Units)
 
8.  PSB  310.1  PRINCIPLES  and  RESOURCES  OF  PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
Definitions and concepts in plant Biotechnology, Development of plant Biotechnology, Key principles and terminologies in plant biotechnology: micropropagation, virus free plants, somaclonal variations, haploid plants, embryo rescue, somatic hybrids and cybrids, germplasm conservation, molecular markers. Principles of plant cell cultures – batch and continuous cultures, bioreactors, biotransformations. Transgenes, gene/molecular cloning and cloning vectors for the production of transgenic plants, plasmid vectors, plant virus vectors, bacterial vectors; transformation techniques: Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, agro-infection, direct gene transfer, problems of gene transfer, Electrophoresis: protein and DNA, autoradiography, ultra centrifugation, DNA hybridization and other useful techniques. (2 Units)
 
YEAR THREE     2ND  SEMESTER
 
1. PSB 309.2 – INDUSTRIAL FIELD EXPERIENCE
The course is expected to give students an opportunity in public and private establishments during the second semester and the long vacation to learn and gain knowledge on their basic and applied aspects of plant science, plant biotechnology or environmental plant science; students will be attached to some industrial organizations for 8 months; students on probation are not eligible for the scheme. (9 Units)
 
YEAR FOUR    1ST  SEMSTER
1. FSB 303.1 – POPULATION AND PRODUCTION ECOLOGY The concept of population.  Characteristics of populations.  Growth, dispersal and dynamics of plant populations. The natural regulation of plant   numbers.      Inventory   of   plant   production   processes. Thermodynamics and factors of production in the plant communities. Gross and net primary productions.   Measurements of production (below/above ground and litter) in various communities – aquatic, rangelands and forests.    Assessment  of  animal use  (grazing and browsing)   of   plant   production.      Vegetation   management   for production on sustained-yield basis. (3 Units)
 
2. PSB 400.1 – PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
The history and development of plant tissues culture techniques,working facilities, glassware and instruments, culture media and preparations, sterilization procedures and aseptic manipulation; sterile technique, removal of explants.    Incubation of inoculated media: culture facilities; maintenance of cultures; organ, tissue, embryo cell and protoplast culture. The significance of plant tissue culture in plant research at both the basic and applied levels: significant differences in agriculture and crop improvement, clonal propagation, disease- resistant plants, somatic hybridization, specific pathogen-free plants: embryogenetic hybrids; significance in industry.   Formation and regulation of secondary products, formation of variant cells with high productivity: batch fermentation techniques; plant cells for natural products production (2 Units)
 
3. PSB 401.1 - PLANT PATHOLOGY
Introduction – Definitions to concepts of Disease, History of plant pathology, Diagnosis of Diseases and Disease symptoms. Characteristics of disease causing agents.    Development of plant Disease.   Loss assessment.   Role of Enzymes toxins and Growth Regulators.    Host plant response to pathogenic attack.    General principles of Disease Control. (3 Units)
 
4. PSB 403.1 – FIELD COURSE II
This is designed to give students an opportunity to carry out a small independent research project dealing with plant materials approved by the Departmental Board and under the supervision of one or more members of staff. Research reporting skill acquisition and improvement; Field trip (1 Units)
 
5. PSB 405.1     - BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Analysis of the concepts of conservation, development and natural resources.   Classification of natural resources:   Abiotic and biotic resources; stock and flow resources:  and  rationale  for  conservation. Ecology of natural resources.   Inventory techniques for bio-natural resources conservation, approaches for abiotic and biotic resources. Development and management of bio-natural resources – human communities, grassland, forests, fisheries and wildlife.  Conservation of our biophysical environments – urban and rural. Introduction to diversity in the plant kingdom ranging from bacteria, algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Importance and threats to biodiversity. concepts important to conservation, history of conservation, renewable resources: non- renewable resources; managing non-living and living resources, international problems of conservation. (3 Units)
 
6. PSB 413.1 – BIOSAFETY / ENVIRONMENTAL LAW Biosafety; Regulations on genetically modified organisms (GMOs); Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) for plants; Patent Act (PPA) of 1930 and its revision in 1954 (in USA); International Convention for the protection of new varieties of plants (UPV) enacted in 1981), revised in
1992, 1998 and 1991; Plant Variety Protection Act (USA); Utility Patents; The new proposed IPR law for plants. The environment laws, regulations and programmes of the nation and international community will be studied.  Hunting regulations, laws on bush fire, sanitation laws, use of chemicals, control of industrial waste fumes from vehicles, tree felling, noise, etc. Function of Federal Environmental Protection Agencies.   Non-governmental protection agencies such as Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). (1 Unit)
 
7. GES 400.1 ENTREPRENURIAL PROJECT II
Mushroom cultivation; Bio-dye production; composting, Post- Harvest Management of Horticultural crops; fruits and Vegetables;
 
 
Gardening; Preparation and Processing of plant-based raw materials.
8. PSB 420.1 – GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS
Introduction/overview of genomics and proteomics
Structural genomics: mapping, molecular markers including fingerprinting, SNPs, sequencing, Genomics projects (Genome Sequencing Projects) and techniques, pharmacogenetics, microRNAs. Genome expression/transcriptosome: microarrays, SAGE. Functional genomics: reverse genetics and forward genetics Proteomics: computational biology, expression, functional and structural Applications of genomics and Proteomic: mapping of pathways, disease Mechanisms, drug discovery and development Chromosomal DNA fibre-stretching or chromosome combing; Flow cytometric analysis of chromosomes and genomes. Variations and types of biological data; Extrapolation of models and patterns from biological data; DNA sequencing; Forecasting of biological properties using appropriate computer software and programmes; Computer programmes and programming for biotechnology processes and plant designs (2 Units)
 
YEAR FOUR       SECOND SEMESTER
 
1. PSB 404.0- RESEARCH PROJECT
An independent study and investigation of a problem in plant science and/or biotechnology, with well defined objectives in the student's area of interest, utilizing laboratory analysis, data interpretation and the preparation of a report in form of thesis. It is examined by a panel of external examiners during an oral defense (examination). (6 Units)
 
2. PSB 402.2 – ECONOMIC PLANTS/ INDUSTRIAL PLANT PRODUCTS
The botany, cultivation and uses of tropical plants with particular reference to Nigeria economic plants especially medicinal plants. Biochemical production of primary and secondary metabolites – alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, etc; Biochemicals from cultured plant cells and tissues; enhancing biomass yields; biotransformations, plant- derived vaccines; biocontrol agents; bioinsecticides; biofertilizers; mushrooms; single cell proteins from algae, filamentous fungi, yeasts. (1 Unit)
 
3. FSB 406.2 - MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Background: Mendel and genes; genetic terminology; Cells and chromosomes; Discovery of the role of DNA; DNA structure; Protein structure: the structure, conformation and other properties of proteins, with special reference to x-ray crystallography and other physical techniques.  Polysaccharides, glycoprotein cell wall structures, etc., and related biological macromolecules.  Structure and properties of DNA and RNA; DNA replication: DNA polymerases; Issues of the replication process; the replication apparatus, or replisome. Repair processes; topoisomerases. Transcription: The basics of making RNA; Introduction to regulation. How RNA polymerase recognizes (and distinguishes) genes; promoters, Interaction of transcription and DNA super coiling. Elongation and termination. Gene regulation: DNA- protein interactions. Proteins interact with DNA and modulate its structure and function. Types of DNA-binding proteins; sequence recognition; DNA-bending. Transcription in eukaryotes: An introduction to the complexity of the transcriptional apparatus in higher organisms. Translation: Formation of initiation complex, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genetic code: standard and variations; recoding, mRNA, tRNA, activating enzymes, ribosomes, "factors". Post-transcriptional processing of RNA. Changes in RNA after synthesis and (usually) before use. Splicing, including alternative splicing; capping; polyadenylation. Trimming. mRNA degradation.
 
 
M o l e c u l a r   Te c h n i q u e s :   D N A   e x t r a c t i o n   t e c h n i q u e s ,   g e l electrophoresis, transformation, PCR and molecular markers, restriction enzymes. (3 Units)
 
4. PSB407.2 – PLANT BREEDING
Definition and historical development of plant breeding, its significance and scope; genetic basis of breeding, review of Mendelian principles of inheritance, linkage, heritability; sources of variation/mutation including genic and chromosomal, rDNA techniques and genetic engineering, polyploidy and breeding. Allelic interactions dealing with dominance and recessiveness of alleles, epistasis and quantitative inheritance. Genetic explanation of heterosis/hybrid vigour, dominance and overdominance hypothesis. Breeding for specific purposes like higher yields, height, disease resistance or climate adaptation etc. Inbreeding depression and techniques for breeding inbreeders and outbreeders.
 
5. PSB 409.2 - SEMINAR
Library/Literature project on any approved topics of candidate's choice. The writ-up will be typed, bound, properly documented and submitted for grading. There will be an oral presentation which shall be graded by a panel consisting of all the lecturers in the Department.  (3
Units)
 
 
6. PSB 410.2 - ENVIRONMENTAL PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
The role of environmental factors in plant physiological processes; energy supply and plant reactions to photosynthetically active radiation.  The planets heat budget.  Physiology of plant under stress including effects of stress, stress responses; Drought (or water stress) effects, mechanism of drought resistance; heat stress mechanisms of resistance; low temperature and freezing effects and mechanism of tolerance; attitude and pollution. (3 Units)
 
7. PSB 411.2 – PLANT VIROLOGY/ FIELD AND STORAGE DISEASES OF CROPS
Comprehensive study of economic importance, symptomatology, causal organism, epidemiology, disease cycle and management of major diseases of Nigerian crops, cereals, legumes, roots and tubers, vegetables, edible fruits and nuts, oil and fibrous.
 
History of plant virology – Discovery of viruses and virus-life organisms (virioids).    Nature and origin of plant viruses. Physicochemical properties – virus propagation and assay, isolation and purification and preservation. Classification and nomenclature of plant viruses.    Viruses as disease causing agents – pathogenesis, symptoms of viruses, variation of systems, means of transmission (mechanical, grafting, by dodder, vegetative propagation through seeds and pollens, insects and mites and soil-inhibiting organisms). Methods of detecting plant viruses.  Major virus diseases of Nigerian crops. Management of virus diseases. (3 Units)
 
8. PSB 417.2 – ENVIRONMENTAL PLANT PATHOLOGY
Agents of plant diseases and systems; biotic factors; the environment and plant health; pollution and plant heath-air, water, soil, pollution; agro/industrial pollution, oil gas flares.   Environmental aspects of plant protection against diseases, meteorological data required for crop protection.  Crop loss and disease assessment, plant disease forecast to operational crop protection. Pesticides in the environment. (3 Units)
 
9. PSB 418.2 - AQUATIC AND POLLUTION BIOLOGY
Water as an environment. Physical and chemical properties of both inland and seawater. Hydrobiology and water cycle properties of natural and man-made lakes. Thermal properties and stratification.
 
 
Hydrobiological cycles. Physico-chemical and morphometric variables of inland waters. Biogeochemical cycling of essential nutrients (carbon, sulfur and phosphorus cycles). Freshwater organisms including bacteria. Fungi, algae, plankton, macrophytes and macroinvertebrates.   Algae as major primary producers in water, classification of aquatic macrophytes; biological role of aquatic macrophytes in relation to water pollution, sources of water pollution – industrial effluents, sewage, crude oil pollution, agrochemical, etc. (3
Units)
 
 
10. PSB 421.2 – ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation; Biofertilizers; biological control of pathogens; Biomass production; Single Cell Protein production; Bio- Energy production; Revegetation methods, soil amelioration methods, identification and preparation of potential plants (algae, propagates and  plants  detoxification  mechanisms  on  soil,  air  and  water environments, physicochemical conditions governing decomposition of pollutants, assessment of toxicity levels (lethal doses) of pollutants, establishment   of   plant   monitors   and   water   sanitizers,   uptake
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