Department of Biochemistry

Department of Biochemistry

Name of Department:                     

Department of Biochemistry
Name of Head Of Department:     

Dr. B. A. Amadi
Contact E-mail:                              

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Contact Phone Number(s):           



The Department of Biochemistry started as a discipline/Unit in the then School of Chemical Sciences in the University and existed as such from 1977 to 1983.  As a result of the creation of the Faculty of Science in 1983 by a merger of the former Schools of Chemical Sciences, Biological Sciences, and Physical Sciences, Biochemistry became an autonomous unit and a full-fledged Department involved in teaching, research and service to community and humanity.
The Department has from its onset been teaching and awarding the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry to Biochemistry Major students.  Until 2012/2013 academic session, the Department was responsible for the teaching of Biochemistry to students in the College of Health Sciences leading to the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Part I Examination along with the Departments of Anatomy and Physiology in the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences.  The Department also offers courses to Faculty of Science Students in the Departments of Microbiology, Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Animal and Environmental Biology (Zoology), Plant Science and Biotechnology (Botany) and Education (Science).  It also serves Dentistry, Nursing and Pharmacy Faculties at the undergraduate level.  The Department currently runs programmes of studies leading to B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Biochemistry. In 1985, the Department started a Postgraduate programme leading to the award of M.Sc. in Biochemistry, with specialization in Enzymology, Nutrition/Toxicology, Medical Biochemistry, Immunochemistry and later Environmental Biochemistry and Pharmacological Biochemistry were added to the curriculum. Doctorate degree programmes are also available in the Department as well as a Postgraduate Diploma in Biochemistry which commenced in 2001. There are presently many students enrolled for the PGDB, M.Sc. and Ph.D. programmes. 
Programme Philosophy
The Department seeks to produce graduates who will be of considerable service to the various sectors of the nation’s economy; including government regulatory agencies, petrochemical and food manufacturing industries, public health establishments and the academia.
The Objectives of the Department are:
To advance knowledge in Biochemistry in order to enhance skills and expertise required for self reliance and gainful employment.
To educate the students on the importance of Research and Development using biochemical concepts and techniques for the development of our immediate environment and the nation; and
To enable the students acquire knowledge through broad-based training in relation to the Minimum Academic Standards as required by the NUC, thereby making our graduates competitive in various challenges or ventures.
Prospective candidates into the degree programme in Biochemistry must 
A minimum of five (5) credits from WAEC or NECO examinations. Subjects include English Language, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and Physics.
A high score (Normally 180 and above at UTME and POST-UME screening examinations).
Successful completion of the Basic Studies Programme in the University of Port Harcourt, and 
Certification of medical fitness/good health by the University’s Health Services Department.
CHM 130.1 General Chemistry 1 (3 Units)
Basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist’s point of view.  Matter and units of measurement. Atomic structure. Theory and molecular structure.  The periodic classification of the elements.  Chemical bonding.  Properties of gases, solids, liquids and solutions.  Chemical equilibrium. Ionic equilibra.  Chemical thermochemistry
FSB 101.1 General Biology 1 (3 units)
Characteristics of life.  Investigations in biology.  The scientific substance of life; the unit of life (including methods of study).  Activities of cells, the control of metabolic activities, cell division.  Basic principles of inheritance.  Genetics.
GES 100.1 Communication Skills in English Language (3 units)
The course seeks to develop in the students a well informed attitude towards English Language, and to equip them with knowledge of English communications and study skill that will facilitate their work in the University.  Lectures and tutorials will cover the use of the library, study methods, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, principles of effective writing, word use, reading and comprehension.
MTH 110.1 Algebra and Trigonometry (3 units)
Elementary notions of sets, subsets, union, intersection, complements, venn diagrams, real numbers integers, rationales and irrationals, mappings of a set.  Real functions and their compositions, quadratic functions, cubic functions.  Roots of quadratic and cubic functions.  Partial functions. Equations with complex roots.  Complex numbers.  Geometric representation of complex numbers. Demutters.  Series and sequences of angles, circular functions.  Addition theorems.  Double and half angles.
MTH 120.1 Calculus  (3 units)
Function of a real variable, grams, limits and ideas of continuity.  The derivative as limit of rate of change, methods of integration.  Definite integrals.  Application to areas, volumes.
PHY 101.1 Mechanics and Properties of Matters (3 units)
Topics covered in this course will include the following: motion in one dimension and in a plane; Work and Energy; Conservation laws; Oscillation. Solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics, equilibrium of rigid bodies, gravitation, Galilean invariance, surface tension, elasticity and viscosity.
PHY 102.1 Laboratory Practice 1 (1 unit)
The Course emphasizes experimental verifications and quantitative measures of physical laws.  Treatment of measurement, errors and graphical analysis. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems, static and rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, viscosity, elasticity, surface tension and hydrostatics.
GES 102.1 Introduction to Logic and Philosophy (2 units) 
A brief survey of the scope, notions, branches and problems of philosophy, symbol logic.  Special symbols in symbolic logic.  Conjunction affirmation, negation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statements.  Laws of thought. The method of deduction.  Using rules of inference and biconditionals.  Quantification theory.
CHM 131.2  General Chemistry II (3 units)
Application of the principles of chemical and physical change to the study of behaviour of matter and the interaction between matter.  Chemistry of the representative elements and their common compounds with emphasis on gradation of their properties.  Brief chemistry of the first series of transition elements, general principles of extraction of metals.  Introductory nuclear chemistry.
CHM 132.2 Introduction to Principles of Organic Chemistry (3 Units)
A survey of carbon compounds including an overview of the common functional groups in aliphatic and benzenoid compounds.  Introduction to reactant and reactions in organic chemistry.
FSB 102.1 General Biology II (3 units)
A course of variety of organisms.  Principles of classification of organisms.  A study of selected animals and plant groups.  Analysis of the flora and fauna of assigned habitants.
GES 103.2 Nigeria Peoples and Culture (2 units)
A study of Nigeria history and culture in pre-colonial times.  Nigerian perception of his world.  Culture areas of Nigeria and their characteristics.  Obligations of the citizens.  Environmental sanitation.
GES 101.2 Computer Appreciation and Application (2 units)
History of computers.  Generalizations and classifications of computers. IPO model of a computer.  Components of a computer system – hardware and soft ware; soft ware application.  
Programme language, organization of data. Data computer techniques.  Introduction to computer networks.  Use of the key boards as an input devise. DOS, Windows, Word processing, spread sheets.  Application of computers in Medicine, Social Science, Humanities, Education and Management Sciences.
PHY 103.2  Laboratory Physics II (1 unit)
The experiments carried out in this course will cover areas discussed in PHY 112.2.  These experiments include verification of the laws of current electricity, measurement of the electoral properties of conductors, direct current and alternate current, circuit properties, series and parallel resonant circuits, transformer characteristics and other electrical circuit problems.
PHY 112.2  Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism (3 units)
This is the introductory course on Electricity and Magnetism.  Topics covered will include: The electric field, Gauss’s Law, Electric Potential, capacitors and dielectric, current and resistance, electromotive force and circuits, the magnetic field, Ampere’s Law, Faraday’s Law of Induction.
BCH 110.2  Introductory Biochemistry (2 units)
Brief history of Biochemistry, Pioneers of Biochemistry (Watson & Crick, Hans Kreb, Michelis Menten, Achievement of notable Nigerian Biochemists  etc).  Role of a biochemist (Medical, Industry, Pharmaceutical, Environmental, Oil and gas etc.  Branches of Biochemistry.  Modern Biochemistry (History of Human genome project), Biochemistry and Agriculture.
5.10    SECOND YEAR 
BCH 210.1 General Biochemistry I (3 Units)
Acids, bases and buffers.  Chemistry of amino acids, proteins and their derivatives.  Methods of isolation and identification.  Primary, Secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins.  Determination and biochemical importance of the structures.  Chemistry and structure of carbobydrates, their nomenclature and chirality.  Vitamins and minerals.  Enzymes.
BCH 214.1  General Biochemistry II (3 units)
Structure and functions of cells and organelles: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells.  Transport processes (passive and active). Basic concepts of biochemical energetic. Chemistry, structure and functions of lipids.  Chemistry structure and functions of nucleic acids.  Viruses.
CHM 235.1 Analytical Chemistry I (3 units)
Introduction to basic analytical chemistry.   The theory of errors, statistical treatment of data, sampling, gavimetric analysis and volumetric methods of analysis.
CHM 260.1 Organic Chemistry I (3 units)
Fundamental theories and principles of chemical reactivity, chemical reactions and synthesis of non-functional compounds.  Reactions and mechanisms of common reactions, stereochemistry.
MCB 200.1 General Microbiology (3 units)
History and development of Microbiology.  Characteristics of microorganisms; growth and reproduction.  Principles of sterilization and disinfections.  Problems of infectivity.  Brief survey of micro organisms as friend or foes.  Antimicrobial agents and sensitivity tests.
CSC 280.1 Introduction to Computer Programming (3 Units) 
Historical details of computers.  Principles of programming :  Programming with FORTRAN language.
GES 300.1  Fundamental of Entrepreneurship (2 units)    
Principles of entrepreneurship.  Leadership attributes of an entrepreneur.  Entrepreneurship and the Nigerian economy; Feasibility studies; Managing an enterprise:  Micro Financing: Intellectual property: Management information systems: Entrepreneurship health, etc.
CHM 240.2  Physical Chemistry I (3 units)                          
Introduction to basic physical chemistry.  The emphasis is on properties of gases, the three laws of thermodynamics and the principles of chemical kinetics and electrochemical cells.
CHM 261.2 Organic Chemistry  (3 units) 
Chemistry and spectroscopic properties of dysfunctional compounds dienes, tenes, diketones and dialdehydes, etc.  Chemistry of aromatic compounds, Aromaticity and routes of polynuclear aromatic compounds.
FSB 202.2  Genetics I (3 units)   
Heritable and non-heritable characteristics.  Mendelian genetics. Gene interactions, quantitative genetics.  Extra-chromosomal inheritance.  Sex determination.  Elementary probability in genetics.  Gene structure and function.  Linkage and recombination in eukaryotes.  Introduction to recombination in prokaryotes.
PHY 115.2 Heat, Light and Sound  (2 units)
This course is designed for students in the Biological Sciences.  Topics to be covered in the course will include:  Thermometry, calorimetry and heat transfer.  Geometrical optics will include reflection and refraction of light at the plane and curved surfaces and optical instruments.  Properties and propagation of sound waves.  Sound waves propagating in air columns.  Doppler effect.
FSB 203. 2  Biological Techniques (2 units)   
Plant selection, identification and storage; collection and preservation of plant specimens.  Identification of plants and animals.  Procedure for the observation of living tissues.  Procedure for the observation of dead tissues (Mirotomy).  The microscope – its structure, use and care.  Cytological techniques.  Electrophoretic techniques.  Chromatographic techniques.  Principles of colorimetry and spectrophotometry.  Preparation of simple reagents and stains.  Simple histochemical techniques.  Basic microbiological techniques.  Palynology.  Photographic techniques.  Laboratory hazards and safety measures.  Experimental designs.  Population sampling: transects. Quadrants. Sampling in the laboratory.  Collection  and preservation of animal specimen: collection apparatus, soil organisms.  Killing and preservation of animal specimens.  Introductory experimental design and analysis: complete randomized, randomized complete block, factorial.
FSC 2CI.I Community Service (1 unit)
This course affords the students the opportunity to render selfless practical service to the immediate and neighbouring communities.  The activities include grass cutting, flower planting, and any kind of manual work as approved by the Director of Community service and departmental representatives.
MTH 264.1 Statistics for Biology and Agricultural Sciences (3 units)
The use of statistical methods in Biology and Agriculture.  Frequency distributions.  Laws of probability.  The binomial.  Poisson and normal probability distributions.  Estimation and tests of hypothesis.  The binomial design of simple agricultural and biological experiments.  Analysis of variance and covariance.  Simple  regression and correlation, contingency tables.  Some non-parametric tests.
BCH 220.2  Metabolism of Carbohydrates ( 2 units)
Degradation and digestion of carbohydrates – sugars, storage polysaccharides and cell walls.  Reactions of sugars. Glycolysis, the Tricarboxylic acid cycle, the phosphogluconate pathway, the glyoxylate pathway; the pentose phosphate pathway and the cori cycle: the calvin pathway.  Gluconeogenesis and glyconeogenesis.  Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism regulations.
5.11   YEAR THREE (300 LEVEL)
BCH 303.1 Metabolism of Lipids/Vitamins and Minerals (2 units)
Classification of lipids – fatty acids, triglycerides, glycosylglyceroles, phospholipids, waxes, prostaglandins.  Lipid miceles, monolargers bilayers Lipoprotein systems.  Oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids; cholesterol synthesis>  Formation of ketone bodies. Integration of lipid metabolism.  Acetic acid as a central precursor for biosynthesis of lipids, vitamin and mineral metabolism.
BCH 304.1  Metabolism of Amino Acids and Proteins (2 units)
Amino acids as building blocks of proteins; covalent backbone of proteins; Amino acid sequence of protein, review of protein properties.  Protein isolation, fractionation, purification and characterization of proteins.  Biological functions of proteins. Oxidative degradation of amino 
acids and metabolism of one carbon units.  Biosynthesis of amino acids and some derivatives; the urea cycle; metabolism of inorganic nitrogen.  Disorders of amino acid metabolism, regulation.
BCH 305.1 Metabolism of Nucleic Acids (2 units)
Genome organization, Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides; abnormalities in nucleic acid metabolism-xeroderma  pigmentation and skin cancer.
BCH 313.1 Enzymology (2 units)
Vitamins and co-enzymes. Fat and water soluble vitamins.  Structures and functions of vitamins and co-enzymes.  Classification and nomenclature of enzymes.  Genetics of enzymes inhibition.  Mechanisms of enzymes-catalysed ractions.  Effects of temperature, pH ions and inhibitors on enzyme catalysed reactions.  Michaelis – Menten Equation Allosteric/Regulatory enzymes.  Active sites of enzymes.  Estimation of kinetic parameters and enzyme activities, Km, Vmax, Ki etc. Zymogen activation, digestive enzymes etc.
BCH 318.1 Techniques in Biochemistry, Biology  and Immunochemistry (2 units)
Principles of instrumentation, paper, thin-layer and high performance liquid chromatographic techniques and applications.  Gel filtration techniques and applications.  Spectrophotometric methods and applications.  Centrifugation techniques and applications.  Flourimetry and applications.  Electrophoresis and applications.  Radioimmunoassay and flouroimmunoassay techniques and applications.  Nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance and applications in Biochemistry.  Qualitative analysis.  X-ray and fluorescence methods.  Principles, instrumentation and techniques in immunology and immunochemistry.  Method for molecular weight determination (viscosity, osmotic pressure, ultra-centrifugation, light scattering, gel filtration, etc) in proteins.
CHM 361 Hetercyclic Chemistry  (2 units)
Preparation and properties of hetercyclic compounds: compounds with linked aromatic rings; 3-,4-,5- and 6- membered ring compounds (furan,pyrole, thiophene and condensed analogues).  Polycyclic/carbocyclic  compounds.
CHM 365.1 Structure and Reactivity in Organic Chemistry (3 units)
Stereochemistry; Kinetics and Mechanism of organic reactions; reactive intermediates; Theory of organic chemistry.
BCH 325.2 Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme ( 9 units)
Student will be attached to some industrial organizations for 6 months to gain practical experience in relation to the subject of Biochemistry.
5.12   FOURTH YEAR (400 LEVEL)
BCH 408.1 Biochemical Reasoning (1 units)
Evaluation and design of experimental biochemistry from available information and data; common sense and scientific research.  Data analysis in Biochemistry.  Case study of specific biochemical reactions.  Interpretation of biochemical events.  Deduction from available biochemical information.  Methods of gaining scientific knowledge.  Research problems and methods of identifying researchable topics.  The effective use of the library, preparation of dissertations or theses, papers for journal publications and journal reviews.
BCH 402.1 Biological Macromolecules (2 units)
Structure and functions of macromolecules. Storage and structural polysaccharides; mucopolysaccharides,  glycoproteins, bacterial cell wall, biosynthesis of protein, synthesis of complex lipids, lipoproteins and nucleic acids.
BCH 404.1 Bioinorganic Chemistry (1 Unit)
Relationship between the physicochemical properties and biological functions of inorganic ions. Ligand complexes and their biochemical significance. Electrolyte metabolism. Nitrogen fixation and sulphur cycle.
BCH 411.1 Biophysical Chemistry and Membrane Biochemistry (2 units)
Application of chemical thermodynamics to biological systems.  Biochemical energetics, oxidative phosphorylation.  High energy compounds.  ATP generation.  Structure, composition and functions of biological membranes.  Isolation characterization and classification of membranes; chemistry and biosynthesis of membranes.  Molecular organization of cellular components – natural and artificial membrane bilayers.  The unit membrane hypothesis.  Membrane transport system (active and passive).  Ionophores.  Transport of sugars and amino acids.  Chemical work of biosynthesis.
BCH 412.1 Tissue and Organ Biochemistry (3 units)
A short review of microbial physiology and genetics.  A review of general metabolic pathways and application in industrial processes.  Continuous culture methods, principles and applications.  The chemostat and its application in industrial fermentations.  Fermentation – alcohol, amino acid antibiotics and other secondary metabolites.  Primary and secondary metabolism.  Process evaluation and development.  Over production of metabolites – amino acids, taste enhancers, vitamins, toxin etc.  Methods for screening and selecting micro-organisms of industrial importance.  Induction of mutation in micro-organism and plants for the purpose of over production; Strain selection/development and enhancement.  Gene dosage and its application in industrial processes.
BCH 413.1 Advanced Enzymology (2 units)
Steady state enzymes kinetics.  Transcient kinetic methods.  Chemistry of enzymes catalysis. Regulatory enzymes.  Molecular models for allosterism.  Multienzyme complexes.  Enzymes assays.  Criteria for determining purity of enzymes.  Enzyme reconstitution.  Regulation of enzyme activity and synthesis.  Production, isolation, purification and characterization of enzymes. 
BCH 414.1  Endocrine Biochemistry/Biochemical Regulation (2 Units)
The endocrine system.  Reproduction and morphogenesis.  Regulation and interrelationship of metabolism pathways.  The relationship of Kreb’s cycle to protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acid metabolism.  Integration of metabolic pathways.  Turnover rates and metabolic pools.  Regulation of enzymes of metabolic pathways – feedback inhibition versus enzyme synthesis.  Catabolite repression and product repression.  The lactose operon and arabinose operon.  Identification of different regulatory mechanism in metabolic pathways.
BCH 415.1 Molecular Biology and  Genetic Engineering ((3 units)
Replication, transcription and translation – a brief review.  The genetic code and its relationship to cellular functions.  DNA replication in a cell-free system.  Genetic transformation, transfunction and conjugation.  Gene mutation, mutagenic agents and thin applications to gene-transfer.  Gene mapping.  Structure of eukaryote genome.  Recombination DNA and its application. Hybridomas.
BCH 416.1 Plant and Soil Biochemistry (2 units)
Biochemical patterns in photosynthesis; photosynthesis units; photochemical reactions for the cooperation of two photochemical systems in photosynthesis.  Secondary metabolic plant products.  Alkaloids – sources, structures, synthesis and functions.  Biosynthesis and functions of lignin, terpenes and terpenoids.  Plant phenolics, the shikmic acid pathway.  Flavonoids – anthocyanins, flavonols and flavones, etc.  Ultrastructure, formation and function of the plant 
cell wall.  Cell organelles – structure, formation and growth of the plant cell wall.  Metabolism of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, plant growth hormones regulators and herbicides. Biochemistry of seed development, growth and fruit ripening.  Soil chemistry.  Humus formation, manure and fertilizers.  Structure and function of membranes and regulatory systems, features of intermediary metabolism in plants.
BCH 418.1  Advanced Biochemical Methods  (2 units)
The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with operations of latest biochemical equipment and with methods of research, assimilation and dissemination of information.  Students will therefore go round industries and laboratories housing specialized equipment with the aim of exposing them to such equipment under the supervision of lecturers.  In addition, students will be taught the principles, instrumentation and applications of HPLC, Chromato-focusing, AAS, PCR, Kjeldhal estimations and Haematological procedures.  Special assignments and essays will be given to students.
BCH 421.2 Industrial Biochemistry (3 units)
Introduction to industrial processes.  Central overview of available material  for biochemistry-oriented industries. The food industry – production of starches and protein-rich food, confectionaries, etc.  Drinks, milk production, fruit juice production.  Starch for industrial uses.  Yeast multiplication for baking and brewing industries.  Sugar production from tubers and canes, etc.  Production of medical enzymes.  Production of diagnostic kits and reagents.  Commercial extraction of aromas and pigments from raw materials.  Production of activated charcoal-coke production from coal.  Soap and candle making.  Biodegradation – production of natural compost as fertilizers, utilization of urban waste materials.  Biotechnology in biochemical industry.  Commercialization of biochemical information – genetical, nutritional and general health counseling .  Student seminar presentation.
BCH 422.2 Xenobiotics/Pharmacological Biochemistry (2 units)
Fates of foreign substances in the body. Detoxification mechanism.  Principles of drug metabolism. Role of gut bacteria, bile and nutritional state in drug metabolism.  Food additives, pesticides and storage of chemicals in the body.  Nigerian traditional medicinal plants in the management and therapy of common ailments in Nigeria –malaria, sickle cell anaemia, common cold, hepatitis etc.
BCH 423.2 Environmental Biochemistry (2 Units)
Pollutants of air, land, water and foods (e.g. fishes etc).  Effect of pollutants on the environment.  Effect of refrigerants, automobile exhausts and industrial smog on health and environment. Effects of industrial discharges (untreated) in streams, rivers and lakes.  Roles of governmental and non-governmental organizations in environmental pollution.  Policies, rules and regulations on drugs, food and environmental management.  Use of chemicals and biochemicals in the fishing industry.  Indiscriminate use of fertilizers and effects on environment.  Biochemical consequences of pollution and oil spillage. `
BCH 425.2 Food and Nutritional Biochemistry (2 units)
General nutrition – History of development of nutrition.  Food and food constituents.  Physical and chemical methods for determining the constituents of food.  Energy value of foods.  Public or Community Health aspects of Nutrition.  Etiology, epidemiology, prevention and control of nutritional status of the individual and the community.  Global aspects of nutritional problems. Nutritional problems in Nigeria and ways of solving nutritional problems.  Food science and technology.  Food standards. Food spoilage, deterioration and preservation.  Toxicants and contaminants in food; food processing, analyses of food products. 
BCH 420.2 Forensic Biochemistry (1 unit)
What is Forensic Biochemistry?  Role of forensic Biochemist.  History and development of Forensic sciences.  Organization of the crime laboratory.  Services of the crime laboratory. Hairs and Fibers (Morphorlogy of hair, Identification and comparism of hair, Types of Fibers.
Comparism and preservation of fiber evidence.) Finger Prints (History of finger prints, classification of finger prints, Methods of detecting finger prints, preservation of developed prints.)  Forensic  Serology:  The Nature of blood, Forensic characteristics of blood stains, stain patterns of blood, principles of hereditary, paternity dispute investigation.  DNA: What is DNA, DNA typing, Gel electrophoresis, The combined DNA Index System (CODIS), The collection and preservation of Biological evidence for DNA analysis.
BCH 429.2  Seminar in Biochemistry (3 Units)
Emphasis shall be on recent advances in biochemistry.  The course is expected to give students the opportunity for independent imaginative thought and expression.  Under the supervision of staff, students will choose from a pool of topics for detailed study.  The topic is presented orally and then submitted for scoring. The seminar is scored as follows:  Introduction 5%, (Presentation: Illustration 10%, Mastery of topic 15%, Response to questions 5%, Poise (dressing, comportment) and time management 20%); Seminar write-up 40%.
BCH 430.2  Research Project (6 units)
An experimental investigation of problems of biochemical interest (human, animal, environmental) under the supervision of an academic staff assigned by the Department.  Thesis based on the project will be submitted to the Department before its assessment by an External Examiner.
GES 400.1 Entrepreneurship Project (2 units)
The course will involve the application of the fundamentals or entrepreneurship which will include planning, design, production, finishing and marketing of the potential products and services.  Each student or group of students is expected to initiate a project of his/her choice in conjunction with supervisors.  Alternatively, the students can choose a project from a pool of projects compiled by the Faculty/Departments.
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