# Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering

## Department Of Petroleum and Gas Engineering

**Name of Department: **

Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering

**Name of Ag.Head Of Deparment: **

Dr. B.A. Oriji

**Contact E-mail:**

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**Contact Phone Number(s): **

07057094558

**BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF**

**PETROLEUM AND GAS ENGINEERING:**

Federal Government of Nigeria founded the University of Port Harcourt in 1975 as a college of the University of Lagos. The college gained the University status in 1977. The academic units of the University are organized into faculties and Departments. One of such academic units is the Faculty of Engineering. The faculty started in 1979 with two programmes, viz: Electrical and Petroleum Engineering. Other programmes which were added later include Chemical Engineering in 1982, Civil Engineering in 1983, Mechanical Engineering in 1988, Gas Engineering and Environmental Engineering in 2000. In 1999 the Electrical Engineering programme was upgraded to Electrical/Electronic Engineering programme, while the now upgraded Petroleum and Gas Engineering Department teaches and conducts research in Petroleum and Gas Engineering.

Petroleum Engineering is the practical application of the basic sciences of physics, chemistry, mathematics and geology, and all the Engineering sciences to the development, recovery and processing of petroleum. Engineering problems must be solved with due consideration to economic factors, and the petroleum engineer must be thoroughly familiar with the basic economic relationships which involve investment, operating expenses, taxation and profitability analysis. If you are interested in becoming involved in solving today’s energy problems, then consider a career in Petroleum Engineering where initiatives and engineering skills of the highest order are essential, but equally important is the ability of the petroleum engineer to work harmoniously with his or her associates. In petroleum development, the petroleum engineer supervises the drilling of wells and their completion if oil or gas is discovered. In the recovery of crude oil and natural gas, petroleum engineers aim toward:

Controlling and efficiently using the natural energy in an underground reservoir Providing additional energy by injecting fluids into the reservoir; Increasing the flow capacity of the reservoir or the petroleum in it through sound engineering techniques; Reducing the cost of oil and gas recovery; and Minimizing waste and protecting the environment Compared with other branches of engineering, Petroleum Engineering is a relatively new professional field. However, because of the rapidly increasing demand for oil and gas and the advances of petroleum technology, it has attained an important position. The unique problems of the oil and gas industry have stimulated the demand for men and women trained in such specialties as reservoir engineering, production engineering, drilling engineering, natural gas engineering, and economics. Since the petroleum industry is expanding rapidly in many parts of the world, ample opportunities for travel and for advancement of positions of high salaries and marked responsibilities is to be found in the profession.

Petroleum Engineering Department admitted its first batch of undergraduate students in the 1979/80 session. Over the years, students’ population has grown steadily; many of them have graduated with very impressive degree classes, including the 1st class honours category. Many of these graduates are working with some of the key industries around Port Harcourt and beyond. We note with pride that many of our graduates have excelled at their places of work, particularly those in the oil sector.

The Department, having consolidated the undergraduate programme, now offers Post Graduate Diploma in Petroleum Engineering, Master of Engineering and PhD Degree Programmes.

**Philosophy and Objectives**

The philosophy is to produce a well-balanced Petroleum/Gas Engineers. The objectives are:

(i) That the product of the programme should be a competent Petroleum/Gas Engineer, but an expert in one of the specializations in the discipline.

(ii) That the product of the programme should be confident enough to establish a small engineering business if ready –made jobs are not available.

(iii) Finally that the product of the programme can pursue a post-graduate programme in one of the areas in Petroleum/Gas Engineering.

**Admission Requirements**

Candidates applying to the undergraduate programme in Petroleum/Gas Engineering should have five credit pass in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, English language and Biology (or Agricultural science) at WAEC and/or NECO at not more than two sittings.

Candidates are also expected to have a minimum score of 200 out of 400 in both the UME and Post UME before they can be admitted into the departments

**Petroleum &Gas Engineering Programme Structure**

The programme structure in Petroleum/Gas Engineering requires five academic calendar years (of ten semesters) of which nine of the ten semesters are actually used for formal class room/laboratory studies. One semester (in the fourth year) and the two long vacations (at the end of second and third and year) are used for industrial training. At the fifth year of studies, students are assigned research project topics and design project topics which they are expected to defend at the end of the tenth semester under an external examiner not below the rank of a Professor.

CURRICULUM

**Course Structure and Course Schedule**

The Department runs a five-year undergraduate programme leading to the award of a Bachelors Degree in Petroleum and Gas Engineering (B. ENG.). Generally, the programme can be divided into two broad areas:- Basic Engineering Courses and Core Engineering Courses

• Basic-Engineering Courses: This covers courses taken in years one and two. These are general foundation courses for all engineering disciplines. This programme is dominated by common Science, General Studies and Engineering courses required by all engineering students.

• Core Engineering Courses: This covers courses taken from year three to year five. The courses taken at this level are professional engineering courses mainly from within the Faculty of Engineering.

Apart from these, the students undertake 3-month industrial training at the end of their year three and 6 months industrial training in the second semester of year 4. During the industrial training period, the students are supervised by both lecturers and industry-based supervisors Details on the individual programmes of study/course schedule and course descriptions, are presented below. The Faculty common courses denoted as ENG courses, the General Studies courses (denoted as GES courses), and the Science courses (denoted as CHM for Chemistry; MTH for Mathematics; and PHY for Physics). The departmental course codes are PNG for Petroleum and GNG for Gas Engineering respectively.

**COURSE CONTENT**

**GES 100.1: Communication Skills in English (3 Credits)**

Study skills and methods including use of language and use of the library. Listening comprehension skills. Reading skills. Using grammar in reading and writing. Writing skills. Examination techniques.

GES 101.2 Computer Appreciation and Applications (2 Credits)

History of Computers. Generations and classification of computers. IPO model of a computer. Components of a computer system – hardware and software. Programming languages, organization of data. Data capture techniques. Introduction to computer networks. Software and its application. Use of keyboard as an input device. DOS, Windows, word processing, spreadsheets. Application of computers in Medicine, Social Sciences, Humanities, Education and Management Sciences.

GES 102.1: Introduction to Logic and Philosophy (2 Credits)

The nature, definition and branches of Philosophy. Philosophy and other disciplines. Nature of philosophical problems. Periods in the history of Philosophy. Philosophy and national development. Types of argument and reasoning. Inferences.

GES 103.2: Nigerian Peoples and Culture (2 Credits)

The concept of culture. Pre-colonial cultures and languages of Nigeria. Principles of kinship, descent and marriage in Nigeria cultures. Nigerian economic institutions. Nigerian political institutions. Education and development in Nigeria. Religion in Nigerian culture. Culture, environment and health practices in Nigeria.

**Science Courses (CHM,MTH, PHY)**

**CHEMISTRY (CHM)**

CHM 130:1: General Chemistry 1 (3 credits)

Basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist’s point of view. A broadly based course suitable from students from various schools as well as those from the faculty of science. Topics to be covered will include atomic theory and molecular structure stoichiometry, the periodic classification of the elements, atomic structure, chemical bonding properties of gases, solids, liquids and solutions, chemical equilibrium, ionic equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, electro-chemistry and chemical kinetis. (includes laboratory sessions.)

CHM 131.2: General Chemistry II (3 credits)

Application of the principles of chemical and physical change to the study of the behaviour of matter and the interaction between matter. Course content includes, the chemistry of representative elements and their common compounds with emphasis on gradation of their properties- brief chemistry of the first series of transition elements, general principles of extraction of metals; introductory to nuclear chemistry. (includes Lab Session.)

CHM 240.2: Physical Chemistry (3 Credits)

Introduction to basic physical chemistry. The emphasis is on the properties of gases, the three laws of thermodynamics and the principles of chemical kinetics and electrochemical cells.

PHYSICS (PHY)

PHY 101.1: Mechanics and Properties of Matter (3 Credits)

Topics covered in this course will include the following: motion in one dimension, motion in a plane, work and energy, conservation laws, collisions, solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics, equilibrium of rigid bodies oscillations, gravitation, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. Surface tension, elasticity and viscosity. Pre-requisite: WAEC credit in Physics,

PHY 102: 1: Physics Laboratory Practice (1 Credit.)

Laboratory exercises drawn from PHY 101.1

PHY 112.2: Electricity and Magnetism (3 Credits)

This is an introductory course on electricity and magnetism. Topics covered will include the electric field. Gauss law. Electric potential, capacitors and dielectric, current and resistance, electromotive force and circuits, the magnetic field, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law of induction.

PHY 103.2: Physics Laboratory II (1 Credit)

The experiments carried out in this course will cover areas discussed in Phy 112.2. These experiments include verification of the laws of electricity, .measurement of the electrical properties of conductors; D.C. and A.C. circuit properties, series and parallel resonant circuits; transformer characteristics; and other electrical circuit problems.

PHY 216. 1: Vibration, Waves and Optics (3Credits)

This course is an introduction to oscillations and waves phenomena. Topics covered will include vibrations and waves, types of waves, sound waves and wave optics.

GLY 210.1 Stratigraphy (2 Credits)

Elements of chrono, litho, bio and magneto and seismic stratigraphy. Global regressions and transgressions. Principles of Stratigraphy, stratigraphic evolution of sedimentary basins (emphasise on Benue trough) and geohistory analysis. Practical to include faces maps, correlations and stratigraphy analysis. Practical to include faces maps, correlations and stratigraphic cross-sections. Coprequisite GLY 213.2.

GLY 313.2 Introduction to Geophysics (2 Credits)

Introduction to geophysical technologies (seismic, gravity, magnetic, resistivity) Geophysical data acquisition, processing and interpretation in petroleum geology and economic minerals. Borehole logging and analysis. Elements of basin analysis.

GLY 401.1 Petroleum Geology (3 Credits)

The physical and chemical properties of petroleum; distribution in time and space. The origin, migration, accumulation and entrapment of petroleum. Types of reservoir rocks and traps. Source rock characteristics, maturation and destruction of petroleum, abnormal pressures, formation water. Evaluation of petroleum prospects, exploration and appraisal methods, reserve estimation and classification. Pre-requisite; CHM 260.1.

GLY 406.1 Applied Geophysics and Mineral Exploration

(3 Credits)

Induced polarization and electromagnetic methods, seismic exploration; Principles of seismic stratigraphy. Data acquisition, processing and interpretation. Application of these methods to mineral exploration, Engineering geology and hydrogeology. Pre-requisite:

**MATHEMATICS/COMPUTER SCIENCE (MTH)**

MTH 110.1: Algebra and Trigonometry (3 credits)

Elementary notions of sets, subsets, union, intersection, complements; Ven Diagrams. Real numbers, integers. Rationals and Irrationals, Mapping of a set. Real Functions and their compositions. Quadratic Functions. Cubic Function. Roots of quadratic and cubic functions. Partial Fractions. Equations with complex roots. Complex number, Geometric representation of complex numbers, De Moirvers, series and sequences. Principles of mathematical induction. Binomial theorem. Trigonometric functions of angles. Circular functions. Addition theorems. Double and half angles.

MTH 120:1: Calculus (3 Credits)

Function of a real variable, graphs, limits and idea of continuity. The derivative as limit of rate of change. Technique of differentiation: Methods of change. Technique of integration: Methods of integration. Definite integrals. Application to areas, volumes.

MTH 124.2: Coordinate Geometry (3 Credits)

Straight lines, circles, parabola, ellipse, hyperbola. Tangents, normal. Addition of Vectors. Scalar and vector products. Vector equation of a line and plane. Kinematics of a particle. Components of velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a plane. Force, momentum, laws of motion, under gravity, projectiles, resisted particle motion, elastic, string, simple pendulum impulse. Impact of two smooth sphere, and a sphere on a smooth sphere. Addition of Vectors.

5.1.3 ENGINEERING SCIENCE COURSES (ENG)

ENG 101.1: Engineering Drawing I (2 Credits)

Introduction to drawing instruments, scales, draughting aids and their proper use. Size of paper and drawing layout. Dimensioning, line work and lettering. Geometrical constructions and Engineering graphics. Development of geometrical figures and intersection of solids and curves. Introduction to projections.

ENG 102.2: Engineering Drawing II (2 Credits)

Orthographic projections in first and third angles. Isometric Projection; sections and sectioning, auxiliary views and staggered sectioning. Freehand sketching. Conventional practices with Simple examples, including threads and threaded fasteners, cam profiles and Assembly drawing from detailed components. Pre-requisites ENG 101.1.

ENG 103.2: Engineer-in-Society (1 Credit)

History of Engineering and technology and the Philosophy of Science. Development of the Engineering industry up to the present day. Safety and health at work. The role of engineers in Nation Building. Food production, housing, transportation, employment opportunities, energy supply, communication and social infrastructure, etc. The choice of Engineering solutions and decision-making process, risk analysis, etc. Lectures by invited professionals.

ENG 104.2: Manufacturing Technology/Workshop Practice (2 Credits)

Manufacturing methods with metal materials (cold and hot workings) such as deep drawing; wire drawing; spinning and rolling; extrusion. Machine-tool manufacture (turning, milling and shaping, etc), Fabrication by welding and threaded fasteners and riveting, etc, metal-casting; Manufacture of plastic products (moulding and blowing). Use of hand-tools, bench work and measuring instruments. Fitting and joining processes (soldering, brazing) wood-working and machinery. Surface finishes, forging, etc

ENG 201.1: Engineering Mathematics I (Mathematical Analysis (3 Credits)

Functions of several variables: functions of 2, 3 or more variables, partial derivatives, differentials, total differentials, application to approximate computations, Higher-order partial derivatives and differentials. Differentiation of composite, and implicit functions of several variables. Extrema and conditional extremum. Change of variables. Multiple integrals: Double and triple integrals, analysis in Cartesian coordinates, change of variables to polar, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates, curvilinear coordinates, application to problems of mechanics. Integral dependent on parameters, improper integrals, line integrals, Green’s formula, conditions for independence of line integral on path, application of problems of mechanics and thermodynamics. Surface integrals , fluid flux across a surface, properties, Stroke’s formula. Field theory, vector field and vector lines. Applied series: Expansion of power series, applications of Taylor’s series, Fourier series orthogonal systems of functions, the Parseval’s relation. Hilbert space, orthogonality with weight function, Fourier integral, Fourier transformation, applications. Special Functions, Gamma, Beta, Error, Bessel, Legendre and hypergeometric functions. Introduction to analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, conformal mappings. Pre-requisite: MTH 120.1

ENG 202.1: Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra and Analytic Geometry) (2 Credits)

Surfaces and curves in space, cylinders, cones, and surfaces of revolution. First and second-order algebraic surfaces, ellipsoids, hyperboloids and paraboloids. Systems of linear equations: Determinants, minors and cofactors, evaluation methods. Vector space, linear spaces, Euclidean space, orthogonality, change of basis, inverse matrix, eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a matrix, rank. Linear mappings, symmetric, bilinear and quadratic forms. Differentiation and integration of matrices. Applications of matrix algebra Pre-requisite MTH 110.1 and 124.2.

ENG 203.1: Engineering Mechanics (Statics and Dynamics ) (3 Credits)

Basic concepts and principles of mechanics, equilibrium of particles in 2- and 3 – dimensions, moment and couple , system of forces, equilibrium of rigid bodies, friction – wedges, screw, wheel bolts and statically determinate structure - beams, trusses, frames and machines. Linear and curvilinear motions, acceleration, Kinetics of parties, Newton’s Second law, impulse , momentum, impact and restitution, work, energy, power and efficiency. Pre-requisite: PHY 101.1 and MTH 120.1.

ENG 204.1: Basic Engineering Materials (2 Credits)

Atomic and crystal structure, Crystal imperfections and impurities in solids. Fundamentals of crystallography. Atomic vibrations and diffusion. Mechanical properties – Engineering and true stress – strain curves, ultimate strength, ductility, impact strength, hardness. Electrical properties- conductivity, semi-conductivity and super-conductivity. Optical and magnetic properties of materials. Simple phase diagrams of alloys, with emphasis on the iron-iron carbide system. The relationship between structure and properties. Creep, fatigue. Heat treatment processes. Stability of materials in the services environment – corrosive media, sub-zero and elevated temperatures, irradiation. Basic criteria for the selection of materials for Engineering applications. Engineering properties of wood, concrete, ceramics, polymers, and non-ferrous metals and alloys. Pre-requisite: CHM 131.2 and MATH 124.2.

ENG 205.2: Engineering Laboratory I (3 Credits)

Assigned laboratory exercises to reflect the basic Engineering courses in Applied Mechanics, Materials Science, Fluid Mechanics, Strength of materials. Thermodynamics and Heat transfer. Guidance on specific experiments and calculations will be provided by the various Lecturers.

ENG 206.2: Engineering Mathematics III (Differential Equations) (3 Credits)

Ordinary differential equations; First-order equations, examples of Engineering models, equations with variables separable, Bernoulli’s equation; exact equations; the envelops of a family of curves, singular solutions, Clairaut’s and Lagrange’s equations, orthogonal and isogonal trajectories. Second-and higher-order equations and systems of equations, transformation of higher-order equations to system of first-order equations, first integrals. Linear equations, general theory, boundary value problems. Euler’s equations, geometrical and physical interpretation of solutions. Operators and the operator method of solving equations, system of linear equations. Operational calculus, Laplace transform, theory and application to initial-value problems. Introduction to partial differential equations elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic equations. Pre-requisite: MTH120.1 and 124.2

ENG 207.2: Basic Fluid Mechanics (2 Credits)

Fluid properties, fluid statics, principles of fluid flow and applications, flow measurements. Real fluid flow, curvilinear flow (2-dimensional). Dimensional analysis and similitude. Pipe flow and friction factors. Boundary layers and drag Pre-requisite: PHY101.1 and ENG 205.1

ENG 208.2: Basic Strength of Materials (2 Credits)

Force equilibrium – free body diagrams, centroids and second moment of area. Concept of stress and strain; stress-strain diagram. Axially loaded members, composite bars; temperature stresses; relation between elastic constants. Thin cylindrical spherical and conical pressure vessels, cylindrical shells with rings, torsion of circular shafts and power transmission of shafts. Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams. Pure bending of beams, bending stresses in composite beams, shearing stresses in beams, complex stresses; principal stresses. Pre-requisite: ENG 205.1.

ENG 209.2: Basic Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer (3 Credits)

Engineering Thermodynamics: Basic concepts definitions, thermodynamic properties; the thermodynamic system units; equations of state for perfect and real gases, and gas mixtures, thermodynamics work and heat; the First law of thermodynamics, energy equations and analysis; basic thermodynamic processes and cycles for ideal gas, pure substance and mixtures; reactive systems; thermodynamic relations; the Second law of thermodynamics and introduction to irreversible processes. Heat Transfer Basic concepts, heat transfer modes and rate processes. Fourier’s law of heat conduction; Newton’s law of cooling; Stephan-Boltzmann law of thermal radiation and configuration factor algebra; stationary heat conduction in simple geometries and composite bodies; correlational equations for convective heat transfer, boiling and condensation; heat transfer by combined modes; insulation and intensification of heat transfer; electrical and triple analogies; introduction to heat exchangers. Pre-requisite: PHY 101.1

ENG 210.1: Basic Electrical Engineering (3 Credits)

Circuit elements (R, L, C,) DC and AC circuits and signals Electrostatics and Electromagnetism, Basic circuit laws and theorems. Three phase circuits, power and power factor. Electrical and electronic measurements and measuring instruments. Introduction to machines. Introduction to Electronics; Semi-conductors. Pre-requisite; PHY 101.1

ENG 211.2: Engineering Laboratory II (1 Credit)

Assigned laboratory exercises to reflect the basic Engineering course in Electrical/Electronics. Guidance on specific experiments and calculations will be provided by the Lecturer.

ENG 212.2: Community Service (1 Credit)

Civil works beneficial to the University community and its environs including but not limited to farming, road building and maintenance, landscaping, planting of flowers and hedges, grass-cutting and general cleaning of campus and its environs, concreting and laying of seating and footpath slabs.

ENG 213.1 Computer Programming for Engineers (2 Credits)

Computers, Computing and Engineering, Algorithms, flour chart and pseudo code. Computer languages, programming in Fortran 77 or later versions. Debugging techniques. Computer code security. Laboratory: Hands-on experience on computers through the use of Compilers to run programs’ and to solve simple analysis problems in fluid, the thermodynamics, heat transfer and electrical systems. Pre-requisite: GES 101.2.

GES 300.3 Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship (2 Credits)

History and the development of entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurship qualities and Characteristics, the opportunities; Starting and developing new business ventures, legal ownership; feasibility Studies; role of small and medium scale enterprise (SME) in the economy, role of government in entrepreneurship, business location and layout, accounting for SME, financing SME, managing of factors of SME, Marketing in SME, risk management of SME, Success and failure factors of SME prospects and challenges of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship ethical behavior in small business.

ENG 300.3: Industrial Training I (0 Credit)

The practical exposure of the student through direct participation in the work of an industry, to real life working condition. During the training, the student acquires a familiarity with Engineering works, organization. Physical layout, and the flow of information, materials and operations. This information is expected to complement and integrate the student’s classroom instruction and laboratory/workshop exercises. Duration: 3 months.

ENG 301.1: Engineering Mathematics IV (Probability and Statistics) (3 Credit)

Theory of probability: Motivation, probability models, probability axioms, combinatorial problems. Conditional probability, independence of events, Bernoulli trials. Discrete and continuous random variables, mass, distribution, and generating functions, random vectors, independent random variables, exponential distribution, reliability, failure density, hazard function, some important distributions, functions of two random variables, transform methods, computation of mean time to failure, inequalities and limit theorems. Conditional distribution and expectation, Stochastic process, Bernoulli, Poission, and Renewal processes, availability analysis, random incidence. Introduction to discrete and continuous Markov chains. Measures of central tendency. Statistical inference, parameter estimation, Hypothesis testing. Regression, correlation and analysis of variance. Elements of experimental design. Pre-requisite: ENG 201.1

ENG 302.1: Technical Writing and Presentation (2 Credits)

Data gathering and presentation. Technical correspondence: letters of inquiry and replies, letters of application and memoranda. Illustrating technical writing using tables, graphs, diagrams, equations and appendices. Report writing: progress reports, proposals, students project, thesis and dissertations. Oral and visual presentation. Computer-aided technical writing and presentation; word processing and word-processing software packages.

ENG 303.2: Engineering Mathematics V (Numerical Methods and Computer Applications) (3 Credits)

Review of the number systems and error analysis. Numerical schemes, error analysis, computer algorithms and programs for the solution of the following problems: interpolation by polynomial; nonlinear equations; systems of linear equations, determinants and matrix eigenvalue problem; approximations; data fitting, orthogonal polynomials, least-squares, splines and fast Fourier transforms; differentiation and integration; difference equations; differential equations by Runge-kutta and other methods; boundary-value problems in ODE. Introduction to the finite-difference method for partial differential equations. Pre-requisite ENG 202.1 and ENG 206.1

GES 400.2 Entrepreneurship Project (2 Credits)

The Students are given project topic to write on. Pre-requisition: GES 300.2.

ENG 400.2: Industrial Training II (9 Credit)

The practical exposure of the student through direct participation in the work of an industry, to real life working condition. During the training, the student acquires a familiarity with Engineering works, organization, physical layout, and the flow of information, materials and operations. This information is expected to complement and integrate the student’s classroom instruction and laboratory/workshop exercises. Duration: 6 months.

ENG 401.1: Engineering Mathematics VI (Mathematical Modeling and Operations Research) (3 Credits)

Basic concepts, methodology, structures, information support and systems approach. Synthesis, analysis, validation and computer simulation of mathematical models. Mathematical modeling of Engineering design objects at micro-, macro- and meta-levels; synthesis, analysis and optimization of design objects. Models for Engineering decision making in design and operations, including environmental, social and economic considerations. Optimization of design and operations: unconstrained and constrained problems, sensitivity analysis; linear, integer, goal, geometric, dynamic, nonlinear and stochastic mathematical programming. Allocation, routing, searching, project scheduling, sequencing, replacement, inventory, gaming and queuing problems. Computer-aided mathematical modeling of Engineering design and operations. Application software packages. Pre-requisite: ENG 206.2, 301.1 and 303.2.

ENG 402.1: Engineering Economics (2 Credits)

Scope of Engineering investment decisions; compounding, discounting, and economic equivalence; cash flow analysis and inflation. Choosing between alternatives: methods for evaluating investments; depreciation, taxes, and cost of capital; comparing alternative investments; replacement analysis, budget and budget control, evaluation of public projects. Decisions and cost analysis; lease-or-buy decisions; economic feasibility study of Engineering projects. Computer-aided Engineering economics. Pre-requisite: ENG 301.1

ENG 501.1: Professional Practice and Procedure (2 Credits)

Registration of engineers, duties and code of conduct and practice. Ethics, professional responsibilities and practice of Engineering in Nigeria. Typical problems and solutions in various areas of Engineering. Engineering projects, planning, feasibility studies and their relevance, guide-predesign survey and stages of Engineering design project scheduling Law: sources and branches of Nigeria Law, courts and tribunals. Law of contracts, the engineer as an expert witness. Industrial legislation concerned with incapacity or injury, working conditions, wages, redundancy, Trade Unions, structure, right and liabilities. Industrial disputes, safety and environmental protection. Pre-requisite: ENG 103.2.

ENG 502.1: Engineering Management (2 Credits)

Organizational structure, goals and functions. Project planning and control. Cost Engineering; capital and operation cost estimating, contingencies and allowances. Production forecasts. Phases and constraints, decline functions. Productivity improvement Purchasing and materials management. Maintenance management. Contract management. Pre-requisite: Good academic standing.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COURSES (CHE)

CHE 315.1 Transport Phenomena I (3 Credits)

Fundamentals of transport phenomena (fields, flux density, field intensity, rate equation, conservation laws – Newton’s, and Fick’s); laminar and turbulent flow of incompressible viscous fluids (sothermal flow over a flat plate, in tubes; non-isothermal flow); Flow in non-circular tubes; Non-Newtonian fluids; Heat transport – stationary and non-stationary heat conduction, Molecular diffusion in fluids; Interphase mass transfer; Diffusion in solids, Pre-requisites: ENG 207.2, ENG 209, CHE 212.2

CHE 317.1 Separation Processes I (3 Credits)

Interface mass transfer. Gas-Liquid operations, Equipment for gas-liquid operations; Humidification operations; Isothermal gas absorption; Binary distillation, Hydrodynamics of packed columns. Pre-requisite CHM 240.2; ENG 206.2; CHE212.2

CHE 314.2 Transport Phenomena II (3 Credits)

Boundary-layer theory, Navier-Stokes equation and applications in Chemical Engineering problems; Turbulent flow in pipes and channels; one-dimensional compression flow; Energy equation; Free and forced convective heat transfer (over a flat plate, in a tube); Convective mass transfer, Introduction to multiphase phenomena (bubble dynamics, cavitation, fundamentals of two phase flow), Pre-requisite: CHE 315.1; CHE 212.2

CHE 417.1 Polymer Science and Technology (3 Credits)

Basic structures of polymer. Physical stages and Transitions; Polymerization processes; Molecular weight of polymers. Viscous flow; Mechanical properties at small Deformations; Ultimate properties; Failure, Tests, Creep Failure, fatigue, fabrication processes; Carbon chain polymers; Heterochain polymers, Analysis and identification of polymers. Pre-requisite: Good academic standing.

CHE 550.1 Technology of Fossil Fuel Processing (Credits)

Source, availability, and characterization of fossil fuel (petroleum, including natural gas, coal, tar sands). Modern processing technology. Choice of product lines and products. Alternative product lines and products, and product specification to be emphasized. Pre-requisite: Good academic standing.

**MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COURSES (MEG)**

MEG 303.1 Strength of Materials II (2 Credits)

General state of stress and strain at a point. Bening of beams with unsymmetrical sections, skew bending, bending of curved bars, thin plates, beams on elastic foundations. Torsion of thin walled sections. Statically indeterminate systems and stability analysis. Introduction to plastic behaviour of materials, elastic, perfectly plastic and strain hardening materials, linear viscoelastic materials, theories of failure. Problems in stress analysis, thin shells of revolution, pressure vessels, stresses due to shrinkage fit, concentrated forces, contact stresses. Computational methods and software design for analysis of strength of the materials. Pre-requisite: ENG 208.2

MEG 307.1 Engineering Thermodynamics (3 Credits)

Review of the Second Law of thermodynamics: entropy, availability, irreversibility. Helmoholtz and Gibbs functions. Gas and vapour cycles ideal and modified. Imperfect gasses. Relations between thermodynamic properties. Mixtures of gases and vapour. Reactive systems. Gas compressors, turbines and jet engines. Reversed cycles. Nozzles and diffusers. Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Computational methods, computer algorithms and programs for energy audit and other thermodynamic analysis.

Laboratory: Laboratory sessions are based on materials covered in this course.

Pre-requisite: ENG 209.2.

**PETROLUEM ENGINEERING (PNG)**

PNG 301.1: Introduction to Petroleum Industry (3 Credits)

Geophysical methods of petroleum exploration; Principles of petroleum geology Drilling for oil and gas: Oil and gas reservoir; Oil and gas production; Oil and gas processing; Oil and gas transportation; Basic petroleum economics; Tar sands, Coal and solar energy. Pre-requisite: None

PNG 302.1: Rock and Fluid Properties (3 Credits)

Composition and porosity of reservoir rock; Darcy’s Law and the concept of permeability and relative permeability; capillary phenomena, surface tension forces, wettability, compressibility and static distribution of fluids; Electric conductivity; chemical, physical and thermodynamic properties of underground fluids; Gas Laws, behavior of Liquids, phase equilibrium, viscosities of hydrocarbons; uses of fluid properties in Reservoir Engineering; Rock and fluid property correlation’s. Pre-requisitions: CHE 240.2, ENG 207.2, ENG 209.2, MTH 280.1.

PNG 303.1: Petroleum Engineering Laboratory 1 (PVT/CORE Analysis Laboratory) (2 Credits)

Analysis of drill cutting; determination of lithology; determination of porosity, fluid saturations, capillary pressure, permeability, electrical properties, effective permeability and relative permeability; physical properties of petroleum and its products, gravity viscosity, surface tension, thermodynamic behavior of naturally occurring hydrocarbon mixture, Differential and flash vapourisation tests at elevated pressures and temperatures. Co-prequisite: PNG 302.1. Pre-requisite: CEG 213.2.

PNG 304.2: Drilling Fluids Technology (3 Credits)

Types and functions of drilling fluids; Drilling fluid additions and chemical composition; drilling mud calculations: Control of mud properties; clay mineralogy in Niger Delta formation; Formation damage caused by drilling fluid and chemistry of reaction between fluid and formation; Drilling mud performance evaluation; Well completion fluids; Uses and Problems. Other drilling fluids: Air Foam and etc. Pre-requisite. PNG 302.1 CHE 240.2, CHEM 130.1, CHE 131.2.

PNG 305.2: Petroleum Engineering Laboratory II (Drilling Mud/Cement Laboratory) (2 Credits)

Mud preparation and treatments; measurement of drilling and well completion fluid properties: Cement: types, properties and testing; laboratory observations of reactions between drilling and workover fluids on formation; Rheology, filtration and relations between functions and measurable drilling mud and completion fluid properties. Co-requisite. PNG 304.2.

PNG 306.2: Drilling Engineering I (3 Credits)

Introduction to Drilling Engineering. Fundamental concepts in oil well drilling. Well planning and cost estimation. Drilling team, drilling rigs, rig power system, hoisting system, circulation system, the rotary system, the well control system, well-monitoring system, special marine equipment, drilling cost analysis, Bit types available. Rock failure mechanisms. Bit selection and evaluation. Factors affecting tooth wear, bearings wear, terminating a bit run. Factors affecting penetration rate, bit operation, drilling fluids and drilling hydraulics, well head equipment. Overview of drilling and casing programs. Drilling performance evaluation, drilling report format.

PNG 307.2: Fundamentals Reservoir Engineering (3 Credits)

Introduction: Functions of a Reservoir Engineer; Characteristics of petroleum reservoir; Geological concepts in reservoir Engineering; Recovery methods and definitions of reservoirs. Determination of Hydrocarbon in-Place Oil Recovery: Volumetric methods; Material balance and applications; water influx models and calculations; uncertainties in reserve calculations. Fluid flow concepts; flow potential; Darcy’s Law. Decline Curvey Analysis. Co-requisite; PNG 304.2, PNG 305.2 Pre requisite; ENG 204.1, ENG207.2, ENG 208.2.

PNG 308.2: Petroleum Production Engineering I (3 Credits)

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering: Subsurface and surface operations. Operational functions and output of subsurface production engineer. Nodal Analysis in flow and outflow performances: governing equations, inflow performance relationship (IPR), productivity index, formation damage, fines migration and skin effect, vertical lift well head equipment performance and pressure losses, choke performance. Problem wells analysis: sand, water, hydrate, scale, unstable flow, surge, waxy crude production, etc. Well surveillance. Well stimulation: Fracturing and acidizing. Introduction to artificial lift methods. Gas lift and pumping system.

PNG 401.1: Drilling Engineering II (3 Credits)

Hydrostatic Pressure, pore pressure and fracture gradient calculations, pressure control and blow out prevention.

Equipment, Indicators and methods of kick controls. Cementing; Properties, Equipment, Hole conditions volume calculations and Rate of circulation, squeeze cementing and testing of cement, coiled tubing drilling, slim hole drilling, directional and horizontal drilling techniques and equipment, developments in drilling fluids technology, wellbore stability and concepts. Fishing: Tools and methods, drilling services and contract specifications. Offshore drilling technology, introduction to drilling optimization, advances in drilling engineering measurement while drilling (MWD). Pre-requisite; PNG 306.2, 304.2,305.2, Co-Requisite PNG 404.1. PNG.

PNG 402.1: Formation Evaluation (3 Credits)

Concepts of formation evaluation and comparison of the various methods well logging, coring, well testing etc. Well logging: classification and principles. Electric, acoustic and radioactive properties of reservoir rocks. Reserve estimation based on well logs. SP curve, conventional resistivity logs (normal and lateral devices), focusing-electrode logs (laterolog and spherically focused logs), induction logs, micro-resistivity logs (microlog, microlaterology, proximity log, microSFL), radio-activity logs (gamma ray, neutron, formation density and thermal time decay) sonic log, electromagnetic propagation tool and the Repeat formation tester.

PNG 403.1: Natural Gas Engineering (3 Credits)

Production and Transportation of Gas: Gas Flow Pipes; Compression; Well Performance; Estimation of Gas Reserves: Field handling of Natural Gas; Sour Gas Problems; Gas Condensate Fields and Storage of Gas. Pre-requisite: PNG 302.1, 303.1, 307.2.

PNG 404.1: Well Completion and Work-Over Operation (3 Credits)

Casing Design; Mechanical properties: tension, collapse and burst; Designing a casing string; well completion designed: types, equipment procedures and guidelines: Tubing design and tubular; cementing and perforation: formation Testing; sand control method. Hydraulic fracturing, completion fluid design, well completion operations; perforation, sand control design, gravel packs. Sand consolidation (SCON), monobore, coil tubing application. Workover candidate screening workover well design, workover operations. Types of tubing selection, selection of tubing hanger, Christmas tree. Subsea well completion. Pre-requisite; PNG 306.2, 308.2, Co-requisite; PNG 401.1.

PNG 405.1: Petroleum Engineering Laboratory III

(Production/Project Lab). (2 Credits)

Rheological measurements: Waxy and non-waxy crude; Flow metering of liquids and gas: determination of meter accuracy. Uses and operations of various pressure regulators; pressures loss measurement along pipes: Determination of friction factors; Bottom hole pressure determination; Oilfield quality control; oilfield chemical tests; setting-up of project labs. Pre-requisite; PNG 302.1, 303.1, CHE 315.1, 314.2.

PNG 501.1: Well Testing (3 Credits)

Purpose of BHP surveys, types of BHP surveys, ideal conditions for running tests, BHP survey equipment, correct procedures for conducting tests, gauge quality check procedure. Theory of well testing-phases and flow geometries flow equations and solutions, analysis models, skin concept; analysis of BHP tests Drawdown, buildup, interface etc. Field practices and other factors that affect tests, examples of bad and good tests.

PNG 502.1: Petroleum Production Engineering II (Surface

Production Operations) (3 Credits)

Surface Equipment: Gathering systems, Design and Testing of flow lines, service and cleaning of systems; Phase separation: Separation process, separators and components design and construction of separators, dehydration, emulsion problems. Oil emulsion, emulsifying agents and de-emulsifiers. Choice and fosage of de-emulsifiers; corrosion and controls; storage fiscalization and custody transfer, offshore surface operations. Pre-requisite PNG 308.2, 403.1 and 404.1.

PNG 503.1: Enhanced Recovery Method (3 Credits)

Review of current recovery methods; recovery mechanism; Multiphase flow concepts; immiscible displacement concepts; sweep efficiency; water flood performance prediction; Miscible flooding; Chemical flooding; Thermal recovery concepts. Pre-requisite PNG302.1, 303.1, 307.2.

PNG 504.1: Computer Applications in Petroleum Engineering (2 Credits)

Computer application in all aspects of petroleum engineering. Computer-aided design of drilling, work-over and production facilities. Computer-aided well test design and automates history matching and drilling optimization. Development of correlations and softwares: oilfield automation and information management. Expert systems. Computer languages, use of available softwares and evaluation of performances, etc. Evaluation of petroleum engineering softwares in drilling, formation evaluation, production reservoir engineering petroleum economics and natural gas engineering.

PNG 505.1: Seminar/Research Methodology in Petroleum Engineering (2 Credits)

Designed to expose students to research methodology in Petroleum Engineering, advances in petroleum engineering, techniques, and formats for technical paper and report writing and strategies of representation to technical audience. Students shall be look at overview of research logic, technical progress introduction to research purposes, writing of proposals and research funding, research literatures and material gathering types of research projects, data processing and analysis, presentation of results, economics, Limitations, observations, conclusion and recommendations, case studies, paper review, advances in petroleum engineering research.

Seminars, Pre-requisite: ENG 302.1.

PNG 506.2: Elements of Reservoir Simulation (3 Credits)

Introduction to reservoir simulation’ Singe Fluid Flow Equation; Multiphase Flow Equation; Finite-Difference Approximations; Consistency, convergence and stability; Grid Systems and Boundary Conditions; Solution Methods; Discussion of black-oil simulator; Practical considerations in reservoir simulation; simulation study with black-oil simulation.

PNG 507.2: Petroleum Economics and Property Valuation

(3 Credits)

Profitably analysis in oil and gas investments, inter-relation of technical and economic data, time value of money compound interest and annuity calculations depreciation methods, capital budgeting projects evaluations. Decline curves analysis, risk uncertainly in oil and gas exploration, decision tree analysis. Monte Carlo simulation, preference theory, pricing and bidding strategies, optimum field development, Nigerian petroleum profit tax law.

PNG 508.2: Natural Gas Processing (3 Credits)

Application of the concepts of thermodynamics, and phase behavior in the processing and conditioning of natural and liquids. Absorption, adsorption and fractionation processing; gasoline plant design; liquefied petroleum gas (LNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG). Other sources of gas. Pre-requisite: ENG 207.2, ENG 209.2, PNG 403.1.

PNG 509.2: Industry Safety and Oil Pollution Control

(3 Credits)

The operating environment; development of industrial safety, scope and magnitude of the problem; safety regulations. Burning of gases, mechanisms of flame propagation. Fire and explosion, limits of flammability. Toxiaty and toxicology. Labeling and identification of hazardous materials, storage facilities. Industrial fire protection. Causes of oil pollution; blowout, pipeline and flowline leakages, sour gas production, sea transportation hazards, need for oil spill prevention and control; impact on the environment, ecology. Methods of control; mechanical, chemical and biological. Global pollution problems; government regulations and contingency plants. Clean Nigerian Association (CAN) and other interested bodies.

PNG 510.1: Alternative Hydrocarbon Sources (3 Credits)

World energy sources, natural sources, uses and properties of fossils and other energy sources. Alternative hydrocarbons resources in Nigeria. Exploration and mining of such resources. Existing and proposed industrial processes for conversion of such resources into Engineering materials and energy. Technologies for the use of coal, shale, tar sands and biomass. Economic assessment of hydrocarbon resources. Environmental advantages/disadvantages of alternative hydrocarbons.

PNG 511.2: Multiphase flow in Pipes (3 Credits)

Principles of two-phase flow; the general energy equation; evaluation of friction losses. Single-phase flow variables used in two-phase flow; flow patterns. Horizontal pressure loss prediction methods. Prediction of horizontal flow patterns. Flow through restrictions.

PNG 512.2: Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics (3 Credits)

Fundamentals of rock mechanics, crater formation: plastic and pseudoplastic characteristics of rocks load rate mechanism, static and impact loading; tooth penetration as a function of differential pressure on drilling rate.

PNG 513.2: formation Evaluation II (3 Credits)

Review/overview of basic well logging. We log interpretation methods. Log normalization, cross-plots, computer process interpretation overlays and office processed logs. MWD system. Applications and problems of log interpretation. Production logging; CBL flow meter, temperature logs and other special purpose logs. Recent advances in logging and log analysis such as fluid contacts, water or gas entry points, thief zone, faults identification, permeability anisotrophy. Production logging measurements. Logging while Drilling. Computer aided well log interpretations. Pre-requisite; PNG 402.1.

PNG 514.2: Introduction to Production Optimization (3 Credits)

Principles of well surveillance; Waxy crude oil engineering; nodal analysis; productivity improvement; new developments in production optimization.

PNG 515.1: Formation Damage Assessment and Control

(3 Credits)

Well diagnostics; Decline diagnosis; well Performance; Types and Causes of formation damage; Symptoms of formation damage; formation damage control and remedial measures; stimulation solvent washers;. Matrix acidization. Pre-requisite. Good academic standing.

PNG 520.2: Final Year Project (6 Credits)

Independent investigation of petroleum engineering problem under the supervision of an academic staff. Pre-requisite: Good academic standing.

**GAS ENGINEERING (GNG)**

GNG Gas Engineering Laboratory 1 (2Credits)

Applications for thermometers, pressure gauges, thermocouples, flow meters, and manometers in gas systems. Construction and operation of simple pipelines using steel and plastic pipes, dies and stocks, and pipe wrenches.

GNG 401.1 Industrial Gas Utilization (3 Credits)

Fundamental technologies and Engineering aspects of industrial gas utilization. Relevant aspects of fluid dynamics, hat transfer, combustion, and acoustics, Technology of industrial gas utilization, including refractory materials, burner and furnace design, safety, measurement and control. Gas utilization in the following industries: glass, aluminum, steel,. Fertilizer, petrochemicals, cement, paper and pulp, power plants, drying, and air conditioning. Temperature control of furnaces; waste heat recovery; efficiency of furnaces. Domestic gas utilization. Effects of gas prices, characteristics and quality. Emphasis will be laid on safety and control.

GNG 4O2.1 Fuel Technology (3 Credits)

Global energy flows. Energy sources and patterns of usage. The technology of energy use. Combustion of fossil bed combustion; combustion of liquid and gaseous fuels. Thermodynamics of combustion. Energy-related environmental problems thermal and air pollution. Methods of reduction alternative energy sources and energy conservation.

GNG 403.1 Gas Engineering Laboratory II (2 Credits)

Measurements of the thermal efficiency of simple gas furnaces. Comparisons of thermal efficiencies of small gas electric furnaces. Safety and control in furnace operation.

GNG 501.1 Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis (3 Credits)

This courses deals with the breaking down less useful fuels into their components and rebuilding them into more useful types of fuel using catalysis. The course equips the gas engineer with the ability to convert and synthesis fuels. It deals also with the production of fuels from plant sources by digestion and fermentation. Coal: classification, fuels derived from coal; carbonization and gasification processes, e.g Lurgi Gasification process. Fischer-Tropsch process; hydrogenation. Petroleum: Origin and production, sampling and testing of liquid fuels; conversion processes, cracking, reforming, petroleum, chemicals, olefins, aromatic and paraffinic hydrocarbons, synthesis of alcohols, keystone resins and plastics. Synthesis of gases: production of methane and methanol through CO and H2 reaction, etc.

GNG 502.1 Energy Conservation and Management (3 Credits)

Energy conservation schemes in residential, industrial, transportation, and commercial establishments. Conservation of electricity in electric appliances and air conditioners. Energy conservation through building design. Recycling of waste materials. Energy storage, total energy systems and energy analysis or energy budgeting as tools for energy conservation. Economics of supply and demand. Government policy to promote conservation. Environmental impacts.

GNG 503.1 Gas Engineering Seminar (1 Credit)

Review and presentation of advances in gas Engineering.

GNG 504.2 Energy Law and Policy (3 Credits)

Examination of the energy regulatory process and current laws and policies affecting energy development and use. National and international energy policies; roles of OPEC, APPA, NNPC/NAPIMS, DPR, FEPA. Energy pricing. Petroleum Industry, unions and the communities. Safety, health and environmental consideration in gas exploitation and utilization will be fully addressed.

GNG 505.1 Petrochemical Processes (3 Credits)

Process description for different processes such as cracking and reforming. Feedstocks and products. Mechanisms, temperature and pressure effects where applicable. Reforming catalysis. Dehydrogenation of cychexanes and dehydrocyclisation of paraffin. Isomerisation of butane, cycloparaffin, alkylation, desulphurization.

GNG 506.1 Pipeline Technology (3 Credits)

Transportation in the petroleum industry. Pipeline design specifications and standards. Rheology, concepts and models. Pipeline design models, conventional models and Energy Cost Optimisation models. Gas pipeline handing facilities, compressors/pumps, sizing, selection and operations. Corrosion control. Pipeline surveillance.

GNG 507.1 Offshore Technology (3 Credits)

The offshore environment. Offshore drilling: Offshore prospecting; offshore rigs; stationary and floating rigs; rig movement and stability; drilling from a Floating vessel; sub-sea BOP stack; marine risers; sub-sea wealhead. Offshore production. Sub-sea well completion methods; offshore processing equipment and design; loading systems and other transportation; multiphase pumping and metering. Offshore operations; logistics, contingency planning; environmental considerations, oil spill and oil removal, corrosion control.

GNG 508.1 Corrosion Engineering (3 Credits)

Fundamental consideration: principles of corrosion; nature of corrosion reaction, anode, cathode, electrolyte; type of corrosion; thermodynamic considerations. Chemistry of corrosion: anode and cathodic reactions; industrial corrosion and causes, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, passivity, corrosion of buried metals (pipelines), bacterial corrosion, atmospheric corrosion (dry corrosion of metals and allows), reaction between metals and oxygen. Oxidation of alloys. Stress corrosion. Corrosion fatigue. Corrosion under moving liquids. Protective corrosion; inhibitive (galvanic) protection; cathodic protection; protective coatings. Corrosion control and monitoring; monitoring and inspection through maintenance and operational control; importance of corrosion monitoring materials assessment.

GNG 520.2 Final Year Project (6 Credits)

Experimentation, analytical or computational study and research of bachelor’s Project.