Human Physiology

Department of Human Physiology

Ag.Head Of Deparment:         
Dr. F. S. Amah-Tariah 
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Physiology is a discipline that attempts to explain the physical and chemical factors responsible for the origin, development and progression of life. The Department of Human Physiology serves its students by providing strong training in human physiology to prepare them for careers in medicine, allied health professions, and biomedical research. At the undergraduate level, future educators, physicians, researchers and other health –care providers receive comprehensive, multidisciplinary training in the physical, biological and chemical sciences to prepare them for entrance into most professional health-care programmes. Our students are encouraged to examine the health sciences from a perspective that explores the functional and structural mechanisms underlying human life, using physiological methods ranging from genetic, molecular, biochemical and pharmacological techniques. 
The Philosophy of the B.Sc. in Human Physiology programmme is to train students in theoretical, practical and applied physiology and make such graduates able to utilize this knowledge for future problem solving and other endeavors like the practice of medicine, nursing, pharmacy etc. The graduate should be able to function as adequate manpower in public service and as self-employed entrepreneur in line with the NUC guidelines of relevance to the larger society.
Aim: The B.Sc. in Human Physiology programmme aims to produce well rounded and grounded graduates who can function at the highest level in the academics, industry, research and entrepreneurship.
The Objectives include to train students; 
i. To acquire sufficient basic knowledge of physiological principles.
ii. To acquire sufficient practical knowledge, practical and research skills in experimental physiology.
iii. To have knowledge of applied physiology as used in Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical sciences.
iv. Who will be able to apply Physiology knowledge to solving life’s situations.
v. With sufficient physiological knowledge to enable them proceed for further studies in related fields of specialization.
vi. To train students who can adapt themselves after schooling, to various life situations including entrepreneurship.
The mission of the B. Sc Human Physiology Programme is to:
1) Train future scientists in state of the art physiology concepts and approaches.
2) Improve overall human health through identification of novel therapeutic targets and treatments.
3) Understand mechanisms of disease progression.
4) Identify factors and molecules that promote health and disease.
VISION: the vision of the Department of Human Physiology is to be ranked among the best Human Physiology Department in Nigeria renowned for teaching, research, creativity and innovation.
MISSION: The mission of the Department of Human Physiology is to produce competent graduates with sufficient basic knowledge of Human Physiology to adapt to the dynamic needs of health care with an adequate knowledge base for further training in any of the medical or biomedical sciences. This is consistent with the mission statement of the University of Port Harcourt, College of Health Sciences and Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences.
MDS 220.1: General and Introductory Physiology
Cellular physiology, Functions of Organelles, Body Fluids and Blood.  Properties of Excitable Cells and Contractile Tissues (nerve, skeletal, cardiac and smooth, muscle), Principles of Physiological Control, Environment Physiology and Illustrative practical exercises.
MDS 221.2: Cardiovascular Physiology
The Cardiac Impulse and the Electrocardiogram, Cardiac cycle, Heart sounds and Murmurs, Cardiac output,  Haemodynamics of the circulation,  cardiovascular reflexes and control of blood vessels, Blood Pressure and Hypertension, Circulation through special organs, Posture and  the Circulation. Haemorrhage and shock.
MDS 222.2:  Gastrointestinal Physiology and Nutrition Gastrointestinal: Physiological anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract, Gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Regulation of secretion and motility. Physiology of defaecation. Gastro-intestinal Hormones. The Pancreas and exocrine functions. Biliary system. Digestion and absorption of food. Carbohydrate, protein, fats, vitamins. Handling of water and vitamins. Liver function.
Nutrition: Energy and other dietary requirements. Basal Metabolic Rate. Nitrogen Balance. Amino acid deficiency. Hormonal control of nutritional needs. Vitamins. Mineral Mechanisms. Food value of local food stuffs. Diet sheets. Nutritional Deficiency States.
MDS 322.1: Endocrine and Reproductive Physiology 
Review of physiological control mechanism. Biological Rhythms. Control of endocrine glands and effects of hormones on other systems or organs of the body. Anterior Pituitary Hormones. Parathormone and thyrocalcitonin. Adrenocorticoid steroids. Adrenal medullary Hormones. Testicular androgen production and spermatogenesis. Ovarian Cycle. Pancreatic Hormones. Hypothalamic Pituitary relations and the Neurohypophysis. Major metabolic, cellular and physiological actions of each hormone. Elements of Reproductive physiology and Lactation.
MDS 323.1: Respiratory and Renal Physiology
Respiratory: Determinants of respiratory function – Lung volumes and capacities; spirometry. Ventilation – Perfusion relationships. Gas transport to and from the periphery.  Mechanics of Breathing.  Control of Breathing – Respiratory Reflexes. Lung Function Tests. Respiration at High Altitudes and in Diving. Artificial Respiration. Oxygen therapy.
Renal: Physiological anatomy of the nephron.  Mechanism of urine formation - filtration, re-absorption and secretion.  Urine concentrating and diluting mechanisms.  Renal Clearance.  Tubular maximum, Hormones and the Kidney. Renin-Angiotension System.  Diuresis and Diuretics.
The duration is full time study of three semesters during which the student will study five areas of Physiology in depth and carry out a project presented in the form of a dissertation in one of these areas.  There will be emphasis on practical work and literature review.  Most of the teaching will be seminars, tutorials, small group discussions and practical exercises.
PHS 321.2: Body Fluid Physiology
This course will focus on a deeper understanding on some general principles about fluid balance, avenues by which water enters and leaves the body. Mechanisms that maintain homeostasis of total fluid volume and of fluid and electrolyte distribution. Renal function and its determination, regulation of effective circulating volume, regulation of plasma osmolarity and water balance. Disorders of osmolarity, hyponatraemia and Hyper-natraemia, cardiovascular shock.
PHS 322.2: Exercise Physiology
General Physiology of Exercise and some aspects of Sports Medicine, Muscle Morphology, Endocrine System, Water and Electrolyte in Exercise, Cardiovascular responses in Exercise, Respiratory adjustments in Exercise. Thermoregulatory System in Exercise.
PHS 323.2: Selected Topics in Gastrointestinal Physiology
The Physiology of the Gastro-intestinal system. G.I.T Endocrinology. G.I.T disorders and Physiological basis. Latest information of nutrients in the aspects of absorption, metabolism, functioning, assessing, requirement, and safety etc. Food ingredients that are non-essential nutrients. Phytochemicals and physiochemicals. Recent advances in nutrition. Nutraceuticals. 
PHS 324.2: Advanced Course in Neuro- Endocrinology
This course is designed to give an in-depth knowledge in the physiology of endocrine organs. The concept of control systems. The Nerve System analogue. Comparative study of fast (Nervous) and slow (Endocrine) Control Systems. The Neuroendocrine systems. The Brain as an endocrine organ. The Gut as an endocrine organ. Local hormones. The Hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The Adenohypophysis. Neurohypophysis.  Thyroid and parathyroid glands. Hepatic endocrinology. The pancreas.  Renal endocrinology. Adrenal cortex.  Adrenal medulla. Ovary and Testis.  The Placenta.
YEAR IV: 1stSemester:
PHS 421.1: Neurophysiology and Special Senses
This course will focus on a deeper understanding of certain key areas of the Central Nervous System. Spinal Reflex mechanisms, Excitation-Inhibition, Localization of function. The different levels of Control, Control of Movement and Neuromuscular disorders in man. The Reticular Formation in sleep and arousal. Electro-encephalography. The Limbic System, Ocular, Auditory and Gustatory physiology. Pain Physiology.
PHS 422.1: Analytical Methods in Physiology
This course will give the student a working knowledge of the Theoretical and Practical basis for the measurements of Physiological parameters. Old and newer methods of measurement will be compared and contrasted. Overview of biomedical instrumentation and application in medical sciences; transducers and transduction, experimental surgery, anaesthesia. Ethics in biomedical research, ethics in human and animal experimentations;
Nuremberg Code, place of high performance thinlayer chromatography (HPTLC), etc in physiology. Laboratory demonstration of some routine diagnostic procedures in clinical physiology recordings and interpretation of ECGs and EEGs in health and disease, assessment of cardio-pulmonary functions.
PHS 423.1: Environmental Physiology
This course is designed to give the student an overview of the Physiology of high altitudes, outer space and deep sea acclimatization. Respiratory and Cardiovascular responses and a brief review of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Toxicology, National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Forensic Physiology (laws and ethics), Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Quality Assurance and Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON). Environmental Pathologies, Environmental Safety and Security.
PHS 424.1: Research Methods in Physiology
This course studies the basic concepts of scientific research. Historical perspectives, the need for research, including research direction. of human experimentation  as well as laboratory animals (including in vivo and in vitro preparation), the animal house, the international regulations/jurisprudence in experimental physiology. Physiochemical / phytochemical analysis; Choice of animals and/or isolated tissues; Data collection, statistical analysis of data – such as the use of SPSS, and presentation; ANOVA, Student’s  T test, Scientific/medical writing.
PHS 425.1: Peripheral Nervous System Physiology
General physiology of the Nerve and Muscle. The Action Potential and nerve transmission. Synapses. Receptors and sensory signaling. The Autonomic Nervous System and its applied Physiology.
YEAR IV 2ndSemester:
PHS 421.2: Seminar Course on Human Nutrition
Energy and protein Requirements. Vitamins, Minerals.  Recommended intake of nutrients. Nutritional deficiency Diseases and Obesity.
PHS 422.2: Seminar Course in Advanced Endocrinology
Concept of endocrine physiology. The receptor mechanism for hormone action. Endocrine organs of major clinical significance.
PHS 423.2: Seminar Course on Physical Methods in Physiology and Bioinstrumentation.  
Thermal and energy measurements of physiology.  Electronics physiology with emphasis on special problems of Biological amplification. Microscopy and Cinephotography of physiological processes.
Student chooses a project topic in consultation with Staff Adviser and the Head of Physiology Department. 
Here, emphasis would be placed on Practical Work usually in the form of laboratory investigation or field research and Literature Review in form of library-based research, on a topic in a specialized area. Oral examination would be based on this Dissertation before a Panel headed by an External Examiner.