# Department of Physics

## Department of Physics

**Name of Department: **

Department of Physics

**Name of Ag. Head Of Department:**

Dr. Y. E. Chad-Umoren

**Contact E-mail: **

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**Contact Phone Number(s): **

08033129896

**INTRODUCTION**

Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other. The main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves, and to that extent, it can be said to be the foundation of all the sciences. The Physics programme at the University of Port Harcourt has been designed to meet the basic needs of the various departments of the Faculties of Engineering, Agriculture, Science, Education and the Basic Sciences of the College of Health Science.

The programme of study in Physics at the University of Port Harcourt, apart from laying a strong foundation for studies of Engineering and other Sciences, also prepares students for specialization in the areas of Applied Geophysics, Electronics, Solid State Physics, Material Science and Pure and Applied Physics. The contents of the programme encourage both theoretical and practical approaches. We have adequately equipped laboratories and highly trained technical staffs that are ever willing to assist students in the safe and proper use of equipment.

To ensure the achievement of the main objective of our undergraduate programmes, students are assigned Academic Advisers who provide academic guidance and counselling. This approach enables the students to properly utilize their academic aptitude in their chosen areas of specialisation.

We hold a three - month industrial exposure period for our students to benefit from the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES). This is a worthwhile avenue for our students to identify, meet and interact with prospective employers and acquire requisite experiences and work ethics outside the classroom.

The department also participates in the Basic Studies Programme, the Post NCE Sandwich Programmes, the School of Science Laboratory Technology (SSLT) Programmes and other Certificate Courses.

In addition, the department runs Postgraduate Programmes leading to the award of Postgraduate Diploma, Master of Science (MSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Applied Geophysics, Material Science, Environmental Physics, Theoretical Physics and Solid State Physics. These higher level programmes have been initiated for the purposes of producing high-level manpower required for research, teaching of undergraduate and graduate level courses, and to service both the oil and non-oil industrial sectors. These sectors form the mainstay of the nation’s economy and most of their operational headquarters are located within the city of Port Harcourt and its environs.

The department has produced many prominent personalities both in Government and the organized private sector. I welcome everyone to a rewarding stay with us on behalf of the Department of Physics.

**VISION**

To become world class physics department and learning centre for the enhancement of the technological capacity of our Nation and the World at large. To place the department of physics University of Port Harcourt among the top five in Nigeria and among the top ten in Africa in the next five years.

**MISSION** To lay solid foundations in Physics for students of physics and the Applied Physics, and Agricultural, Basic Health, Pharmaceutical sciences and Engineering for the intellectual application of physics laws and processes to gaining competence in problem solving, acquiring entrepreneurial skills, create environmental sustainability and attain technological development for the society.

**PHILOSOPHY OF THE PROGRAMME** The underlying philosophy for the B.Sc. degree programme in physics is to essentially inform and educate on the structure and physical characteristics of matter and the earth. The ripple effects are applying the principles to solving human problems and provision of societal and industrial needs.

**GOALS/OBJECTIVES**

The goals and objectives of the Department of physics, University of Port Harcourt, Choba are:

• Provision of broad-based knowledge in basic and applied physics leading to a variety of career opportunities and entrepreneurial skills in order to fit well into both the public and private sectors of the society by using modern teaching and learning techniques.

• Provision of broad-based knowledge in basic and applied physics leading to a variety of career opportunities and entrepreneurial skills in order to fit well into both the public and private sectors of the society by using modern teaching and learning techniques.

• Exposure of students to theoretical and practical aspects of physics in order to provide full knowledge of most areas of physics.

• Running an academic programme that is based on early exposure of students to specific areas of specialization from the undergraduate level.

• Stimulation, sensitization and motivation of postgraduate students to undertake scientifically productive research works that could yield cutting edge results which can be translated into industrial development.

• Involvement in intradepartmental, interdepartmental and inter-faculty collaborative teaching and research efforts in order to reap the fruitful harvest of productive research findings and results.

• Collaboration with relevant industries to carry out industry-based project works whose result will have direct application to industrial development and the materials needs of the society.

**RESEARCH STRATEGIES**

The research strategy of the department of physics is focused on five basic research groups (TEAMS) under which falls a number of research interest areas as stated below.

Applied physics Research Team

Geophysics Research Team

Theoretical Physics Research Team

Science and Condensed Matter Physics Research Team

Geophysics Research Team

Theoretical Physics Research Team

Science and Condensed Matter Physics Research Team

**PROGRAMMES OFFERED**

B.Sc. (Hons) Physics

B.Sc. (Hons) Physics with Electronics

B.Sc. (Hons) Physics with Material Science

B.Sc. (Hons) Physics with Applied Geophysics

M.Sc. Theoretical Physics

M.Sc. Physics (Solid State Electronics)

M.Sc. Physics (material Science)

M.Sc. Physics (Applied Geophysics)

M.Sc. Physics (Environmental Physics)

Ph.D. Applied Geophysics

Ph.D. Material Science

Ph.D. Solid State Physics

Ph.D. Theoretical Physics

Ph.D. (Environmental Physics)

B.Sc. (Hons) Physics with Electronics

B.Sc. (Hons) Physics with Material Science

B.Sc. (Hons) Physics with Applied Geophysics

M.Sc. Theoretical Physics

M.Sc. Physics (Solid State Electronics)

M.Sc. Physics (material Science)

M.Sc. Physics (Applied Geophysics)

M.Sc. Physics (Environmental Physics)

Ph.D. Applied Geophysics

Ph.D. Material Science

Ph.D. Solid State Physics

Ph.D. Theoretical Physics

Ph.D. (Environmental Physics)

**ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS**

**(A) Undergraduate Programme**

The minimum entry requirement for admission to the Bachelor’s degree programme in the Department of Physics in accordance with the minimum academic standard of the National University Commission (NUC) is five (5) credits passes at not more than two sittings in the West African School Certificate (WASC), or Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) or (NECO) or NABTECH examination. The credits must include English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology or Agricultural Science.

The candidate can also be admitted into 200 level through the direct entry programme. The admission requirement for this category is as stated below:

**(B) DIRECT ENTRY**

(i) Two A/level GCE or HSC passes in Physics and any one of Mathematics or Chemistry (with a minimum of ‘C’ which is 3 points each to a cumulative total of 10 points) including UTME requirement.

(ii) Two A/level JPEB passes in physics and any one of mathematics or chemistry including UTME requirement.

(iii) OND or ND in physics with upper credit from a recognized Institutions including UTME requirement.

(iv) HND in Physics with lower credit from a recognized institution including UTME.

**(C) POST-GRADUATE PROGRAMME**

Admission into the Post-Graduate programme of the Department requires a Bachelor’s degree in Physics from the University of Port Harcourt or any other recognized University approved by the Senate of the University of Port Harcourt. A minimum of Second-Class lower degree with a CGPA of not less than 3.0 is required for the M.Sc. admission. For those intending to pursue a Ph.D. programme of the department, the candidate must have M.Sc. Degree in relevant fields with a minimum CGPA of 4.0. All prospective Ph.D. candidates are also expected to attend a pre admission oral interview, at which where they are to defend their written proposals.

**STATEMENT OF ACADEMIC POLICIES**

This statement of Academic policies was issued first in 1977. It was revised in 1983 to reflect the reorganization from School to a Faculty-Department system and in 1990 to reflect changes in line with the NUC Minimum Academic Standards. This revision reflects changes made by Senate in 1995 and finally revised in 2002.

**ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES**

The Academic Objectives of the department is rooted in that of the University of Port Harcourt as a whole:

‘’TO CONTRIBUTE TO NATIONAL DEVLEOPMENT, SELF-RELIANCE AND UNITY THROUGH THE ADVANCEMENT AND PROPAGATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND TO USE SUCH KNOWLEDGE FOR SERVICE TO THE COMMUNITY AND TO HUMANITY.’’

To this end:

i. Degree programmes shall be provided with the objective of producing persons who are well grounded in contemporary culture, have sound knowledge of at least one branch of learning, and are intellectually and morally well equipped to make an effective contribution to national development, self-reliance and unity.

ii. Research Facilities shall be provided for staff and students to undertake research relevant to the total development of Nigeria.

iii. Continuing education programmes shall be provided for the benefit of persons in the various sectors of the economy and in the public service, with a view to increasing their efficiency and productivity through knowledge of new developments relating to their work.

iv. Programmes shall be provided to assist the local community to benefit from the facilities provided by the institution.

i. Degree programmes shall be provided with the objective of producing persons who are well grounded in contemporary culture, have sound knowledge of at least one branch of learning, and are intellectually and morally well equipped to make an effective contribution to national development, self-reliance and unity.

ii. Research Facilities shall be provided for staff and students to undertake research relevant to the total development of Nigeria.

iii. Continuing education programmes shall be provided for the benefit of persons in the various sectors of the economy and in the public service, with a view to increasing their efficiency and productivity through knowledge of new developments relating to their work.

iv. Programmes shall be provided to assist the local community to benefit from the facilities provided by the institution.

**DEGREE STRUCTURE**

The department in conjunction with the University of Port Harcourt runs a four (4) year degree programme leading to the award of Bachelor of Sciences (B Sc) Degrees in Physics in the following options:

(i) Applied Physics

(ii) Physics with Electronic

(iii) Physics with Material Sciences

(iv) Physics with Applied Geophysics.

The General framework for the degree structure is as follows:

**1st Year**

General Studies Courses

(Where Foundation Courses applicable)

Major Courses

Elective Courses (if any)

**Training/Attachment**

**2nd Year**

General Studies Courses (where applicable)

Foundation Courses

Major Courses

Community service Courses (where applicable)

Elective courses (where applicable)

**3rd Year**

General Studies Courses

Major Courses

Industrial (2nd semester)

Industrial (2nd semester)

**4th year**

General Studies Courses (where applicable)

Major Courses

Elective Courses (where applicable)

Seminar courses (where applicable)

Elective Courses (where applicable)

Seminar courses (where applicable)

Elective courses (where applicable) Seminar courses (where applicable)

**(A) General Studies Courses**

These are courses at appropriate levels of the degree programme, the purpose of which shall be to improve the basic intellectual and communications skills of the students and to promote a continuous awareness and understanding of contemporary society as well as the historical and cultural origins of the peoples of Nigeria.

**(B) Foundation Studies Course**

A common core courses in the Science Faculty from which all students shall take an approved selection in at least the first year, the purpose of which shall be to provide a sound background in general principles and methodology relating to the disciplines in the Faculty.

**(C) Community Service Course**

This is field project directed towards service to the community or to the University and is an integral part of all degree programmes. The objective of the project is to involve both staff and students in a practical way with some of the problems of society as well as with efforts to provide solutions to them, and to inculcate and develop in both staff and students a consciousness of their responsibilities to society and the satisfaction of rendering service to others. The projects, which are practical in nature, require the application of some of the skills being acquired in the degree programme to service of the community, and generally involve manual work. They are credit earning and are an essential requirement in all degree programmes.

**(D) Major Courses**

These are courses in the student’s major field of interest. These shall begin as a limited number of major courses in the first two years, and occupy most of the student’s time in subsequent years.

**(E) Elective Courses**

Elective courses offer some opportunities to student broaden their interests, either within or outside their major discipline subjects to advice of their academic advisers; students are encouraged to follow their interests in electives.

**Industrial Attachment**

Students are expected to undergo a six month period of industrial attachment. This is usually at the second semester of the 300 levels or year of the programme.

**GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARD OF A DEGREE**

**Programme**To obtain a degree in Physics of the University of Port Harcourt, students must complete the approved programme of study and pass all the prescribed courses.

The pass mark for each course in the undergraduate programmer is 40%.In addition a student must end accumulative credit unit between 120 and 192. That is a minimum of 15 credit units and a maximum 24 credit units per semester. The duration of the programme is 4 academic year to a maximum of 6 academic year. Candidate who spend maximum of 6 years in the programme shall either pass or fail out.

**UNDERGRADUATE COURSE DESCRIPTION**

**PHY 101.1 Introduction of Mechanics and Properties of Matter**Topics covered in this course will include the following: Motion in one dimension, motion in plane, work and energy, conservation laws, collision, solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics, equilibrium, of rigid bodies, oscillations, gravitation, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. Surface Tension, Viscosity and Hydrostatics.

**PHY 102.1: Laboratory practice I**This course emphasizes experimental verification and quantitative measurements of physics laws, treatment of measurements errors and graphical analysis. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems, static and rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, viscosity, elasticity, surface tension and hydrostatics.

**MTH 110.1 Algebra and Trigonometry**Elementary notations of set, subsets, unions, intersection, compliments, Venn diagrams. Real numbers, integers, rational and irrational numbers, mappings of a set. Real functions and their decomposition. Quadratic functions. Cubic functions. Roots of quadratic and cubic functions. Equations with complex roots. Complex number. Geometric representation of complex numbers. De Moirvers series and sequences. Principle of Mathematical Induction. Binomial theorem. Trigonometric function of angles. Circular functions. Addition theorems, Double and half angles.

**MTH 120.1 Calculus**The straight line parallel and perpendicular lines angle between two straight line, the distance of points from a line, parametric equations, tangents and normals, limits and continuity. Differentiability, the derivative of simple algebraic functions, rules of differentiation, maxima and minima, integration as the inverse of differentiation. Integration as the limit of a sum, area under the curves, volumes.

**CHM 130.1 General Chemistry I**Basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist’s point of view. A broadly based course suitable for students from various schools as well as those from the Faculty of Science. Topics to be covered will include atomic theory and molecular structure, stoichiometry, the periodic classification of the elements, atomic solutions, and chemical equilibrium. Ionic equilibrium, chemical thermodynamics, electrochemistry and chemical kinetics.

**GES 100.1 Communication Skill in English**The course seeks to develop the students a well-informed attitude to the English language and to equip them with the knowledge of English communication and study skill that will facilitate their work in University and beyond.

**GES 102.1 Introduction to Logic and Philosophy**A brief survey of the scope, notions, branches and problems of philosophy symbolic logic, specific symbolic logic. Conjunction, affirmation, negations, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statements. Law of thought. The method of deduction, using rule of inference and bi-conditions. Quantitative theory.

**PHY 103.2 Laboratory Practice II**The experiment carried out in this course will cover areas discussed in PHY 112.2. These experiments include verifications of the current electricity, measurement of the electrical properties of conductors, D.C. and A.C. circuit properties, series and parallel resonant circuits, transformer characteristics and other electrical circuit problems.

**PHY 112.2 Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism**This is the introductory course on Electricity and Magnetism. Topics covered all will include: the Electric field, Gauss’s Law, Electric potential, Capacitor and Dielectric, current and resistance, electromotive force and circuits, the magnetic field, Ampere’s Law, faraday’s Law of induction.

Text: Electromagnetism and Modern Physics for physical Science by Evwaraye and Mgbenu.

**PHY 115.2: Heat, Light and Optics**This course is designed for students in the Biological Sciences (Botany, Microbiology and Zoology). Topics to be covered in the course will include: thermometry, calorimetry and heat transfer. Geometrical optics will include reflection and refraction of light at the plane and curved surfaces and optical instruments. Properties and propagation of sound waves. Sound waves propagating in air columns. Doppler effect.

*MTH 124.2: Coordinate Geometry*Straight lines, circles parabola, ellipse, hyperbola. Tangent and normal. Addition of Vectors, Scalar and Vector products; Vector operations of a line and plane. Kinematics of a particle. Components of velocity and acceleration of a particle moving in a plane. Force, momentum, laws of motion under gravity, projectiles, resisted vertical motion, elastic string, simple pendulum, impulse, impact of two smooth spheres and a sphere on a smooth spheres.

**CHM 131.2 General Chemistry II**Application of the principles of chemical and physical change to the study of the behavior of matter and the interaction between matters. Course content includes: the chemistry of the representative elements and their common compounds with emphasis on graduation of their properties, brief chemistry of the first series of transition elements, general principles of extraction of metals introductory nuclear chemistry.

**GLY 101.2: Planet Earth**The course teaches the student the following: Origin of the Universe and the solar system. Structure and composition of the earth. The common rock-forming minerals. The major rock groups. Elements of structural Geology and Crystallography. Surface processes (Weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition). Elements of Historical geology, palaeontology and stratography. Concepts of Paleogeography, paleoclimatology pale environment, paleoceanograpy and pale magnetism. Introduction to concepts of continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.

**GES 101.2 Computer Appreciation and Applications**History of Computers, Generation and Classification of Computers; IPO model of a computer, Components of a computer system- hardware’s and Software’s; Programming Language, Organization of Data, Data Computer techniques; Introduction to computer Networks; Software and its applications; Use of key board as an input device; DOS, Windows, Word processing Spreadsheets; Application of Computers in Medicine, Social Sciences, humanities, Education Management Sciences.

**GES 103.2: Nigerian People and Culture**The overall objective of this course is to help students understand the concept of culture and its relevance to human society especially as it relates to development. In more specific terms, the course will be designed to help the students know the history of various Nigerian cultures beginning with pre-colonial Nigeria society. Colonialism constitutes a vital watershed in Nigerian history. Thus the course will:

**1.**Identify the influence of colonialism on Nigerian culture.

**2.**Focus on contemporary Nigerian culture explaining issues that relate to the political economic, educational, religious and social institutions in the nation.

The course outline includes: The concept of culture; pre-colonial culture and Languages of Nigeria; principles of kinship, decent and marriage in Nigerian cultures; the colonial impact; Nigerian economic institutions; Education and development in Nigeria; Religion in Nigerian culture; culture, environment and health practices in Nigeria; Intergroup relations.

**PHY 200.1: Energy and Environment**The principles, demands and outlook for power and energy. Transformation of energy, its cost and pollution. Principles and problems of electrical energy from fossil and hydroelectric generation; their cost, capacity, storage, reserve, efficiency and consequent environmental effects. Electrical energy from nuclear water power, geothermal power, tidal power, wind power, etc. promise and problems of such unconventional energy sources.

**PHY 206.1: Laboratory Practice III**The laboratory course consists of experiments drawn from electromagnetism and modern physics. Such experiments will include: measurement of specific charge, verification of the Hall effect, electron motion in electric and magnetic fields; experiments with the Geiger Mueller tube; the Frank-Hertz experiment and the Photo-electric effect.

**PHY 216.1: Vibrations and Waves**This course is an introduction to oscillations and waves phenomena. Topics covered will include vibrations and waves, electromagnetism waves, vibrating systems, types of waves, sound waves and wave optics.

**MTH 210.1: Linear Algebra**Definition of a function, sequences and series of real numbers, theory of functions of single variable.

**MTH 280.1: Introduction to Computer Programming**Historical details of Computers, principles of programming. Programming with FORTRAN Language.

**STA 260.1: Introduction to Probability and statistics**Definition of Probability, frequency and probability of events. Equally likely events, counting technique. Conditional probability (Baye’s Theorem), independent events, random variables, probability distributions. The central limit theorem, mathematical expectation, moments, the mean, variance, variance of sum, co-variance and correlation, conditional expectation. Analysis of variance plus contingency table plus non-parametric inference.

**GLY 202.1: Structural Geology**Fundamentals of structural Geology. Description, genesis, classifications and interpretations of deformational structures. Unconformities, faults, folds and structural features related to igneous activity etc. Practical to include: three (3) point problems, interpretation of geologic and aerial photomaps.

**PHY 205: Heat, Thermodynamics and Geometrical Optics**The three parts of his course are heat, under which thermometry, Calorimetry and heat transfer are discussed. Thermodynamics – treat the kinetic theory of an ideal gas, equation of state, reversible adiabatic and isothermal processes, the first and second laws of thermodynamics including their consequences; and Geometrical optics which discusses the fundamental principles of reflection and refraction at plane and curved surfaces; emission and absorption spectra and optical instruments.

*PHY 207.2: Laboratory Practice*This laboratory course will include calorimery and heat transfer experiments. Light interference and diffraction experiments, experiments with Michelson interferometer, Fresnel Biprism, Nicol prism, Polari meter and the Newton’s Ring experiment.

**PHY 211.2: Quantum Mechanics I**Inadequacies of classical mechanics, differences between classical I and quantum mechanics; wave-particle properties, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principles, wave and state functions; principles of Quantum mechanics; Schrodinger’s wave mechanics formulation, postulates of quantum mechanics, matrix representation of Quantum mechanics, time-independent Schrodinger’s wave equation; wave mechanics for some simple system;

**PHY 221.1; Mathematics Physics**This is an introductory mathematical methods course which is of particular interest to theoretical physics. Topics to be treated include introductory vector analysis; coordinate systems and their transformations. Motion in the various coordinate systems. Differential equations in two and three dimensions. Application of differential equations (partial and whole) in mechanics, electric circuits, atomic and nuclear physics, and boundary value problems.

**PHY 222.2 Theoretical and Fluid Mechanics I**Newtonian Mechanics. Motion of a particle in one, two and three dimension, system of particles and collision theory, Newtonian gravitation, conservative forces and potentials, oscillations, central force problems, accelerated frames of reference, rigid body dynamics, generated motions; mechanics of continuum media. Fluid statics and dynamics.

**PHY 231.2: Modern Physics**This is an introductory course on modern physics. Topic in atomic structure, photoelectric effect, black-body radiation, relativity, radioactivity, nuclear structure, mass spectrometers.

**MTH 340.1 Ordinary Differential Equation I**Series solutions of second order linear equations. Bessel, Legendre and hypergeometric equations and functions. Gamma, Beta Functions. Stum-Lioville problems. Orthogonal polynomials and functions. Fourier, formier-Bessel and form, Legendre series. Fourier transformations. Solution of Laplace, wave and heat equation by Fourier method.

**FCS 201.2 Community Services (See Faculty of Science)**

**GLY 206.2 Sedimentology I**The geologic cycle, sedimentary processes, textures and structures. Composition (mineral and chemistry), origin and classification of sedimentary rocks (sandstones), carbonates, and shales), and minerals (evaporates, phosphates, manganese deposits, non rich rocks and sulphur). Digenesis of sandstone and carbonates. Practical to include megascopic and microscopic identification of sedimentary rocks and b XRD methods as well as diagenetic features and cement Para genesis.

**PHY 300.1 Mathematics Physics II**This is a continuation of the first semester PHY 200.1. Topics covered in the course will include complex variables and application; Fourier series and transforms, Metric’s and determinants; special functions like Bessel functions, Languere functions and polynomials; Hermitefunctiosn and polynomials; Lengendre equations and polynomials.

**PHY 306.1 Thermal Physics**This course aims at presenting thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in a unified manner. Topics include quantum states, entropy, temperature, pressure, chemical potential, thermodynamics potential, grand sum and partition functions; distribution function, relationship of statistical variables of thermodynamic variables, applications, transport processes and fluctuation phenomenon. Maxwell-Boltzman velocity distribution law

**PHY 313.1 Electricity and Magnetism I**This course deals with the topics of electricity and magnetism seen in PHY 112.2 at a more advanced level. topics include electrostatics, solutions of Laplace’s Equations, dielectric, static magnetic fields, magnetic materials, electromagnetic induction and Maxwell’s Equation.

**PHY 315.1 Electronic Instrumentation I**Introduction to the principles of measurement and control. Generalized approach to measuring systems. (Functional description, input-output configuration). Performance characteristics of instruments. Analysis of errors, units of measurements. Analytical techniques for system analysis. (Different domain, Review of Laplace transform, transfer function). Frequency response analysis, Rouith-Huwite stability criteria, Poles-zero plots. Bode plots and polar plots. Nyquist stability and principles and properties of feedback systems as applied to measurement systems. Control systems characteristics open and closed loop control systems.

**PHY322.1 Theoretical and Fluid Mechanics II**Degrees of freedom, generalized coordinates, Lagrange’s formulation of mechanics, application, the calculus of variations and the action principle Hamiltonian’s formulation of mechanics, application. Invariance and conservation laws. Oscillatory systems including damped, forced and coupled oscillation, Normal modes.

**PHY 331.1 Quantum Mechanics II**Degenerate and non-degenerate steady state permutation theory, identical particles, the matrix formulation of Quantum mechanics, Time-dependent perturbation theory, the relativistic wave equation, origin of the electron spin.

**PHY 353.1 Electrical Circuit**This course introduces students to the application of various methods of analyzing DC circuits cooking resistive elements and different types of sources (CC, CVS, CDCS, VDCS, CDVS, VDVS), such as Kirchoff’’s Law, Node method, Mesh method, superposition, theorems and Norton equivalent circuits and maximum power transfer theorems and application to transistor and Op-amp circuits.

CCS – Constant current sources

CVS – Constant voltage sources

CDCS – Current-dependent current sources

VDCS – Voltage-Dependent current sources

CDVS – Current Dependent voltage Sources.

**PHY 444.1 Engineering Materials I**Introduction of Material Science with emphasis on physical metallurgy, Classes of Materials, Polymers, ceramics, woods, metals and composite materials, structure, properties and applications of polymers, ceramics and metal. Effects of crystal structures, defectsand heat-treatment on materials. Relation of properties (Electrical, optical and mechanical) to microstructure. Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Phase diagrams, Solidification of liquid metals and alloys, casting process defects. Cold and hot working processes(pressing, forging, extrusion, deep drawing, rolling, casting, etc.). Metallography Optical microscope and introduction to electron microscopy.

**PHY 361.1 Introduction to Geophysical Exploration Seismic Methods**This course introduces the students to the art of Geophysical exploration using seismic methods. At the end of the course, the student should have mastered theoretical aspects of seismic methods, including characteristics of elastic waves and their propagation. Reflection, Refraction, Generation of seismic waves, Instruments, Digital recording and Field Instrumentation.

**PHY 414.2: Electricity and Magnetism II**Continuation of PHY 313.1. Topics include polarization, dispersion, reflection and refraction of EM. Waves guided waves, radiating systems resonance cavities transmission lines, diffraction and electrodynamics.

**PHY 320.1: Advanced Physics Laboratory/Workshop (For Physics student)**In the course, laboratory experiments are chosen from electronics, material science, atomic and nuclear, solid state physics and the workshop course is intended to prepare the students for their research projects (PHY 449.0) by way of introducing them to the use of simple machine tools. Welding, soldering glass blowing, engineering drawing and design are also included

**PHY 345.2 Material Science**This course aims at acquainting Materials science students with the introduction to material based on properties of solids, microstructure, forming and shaping operation. This should illustrate the importance of the range of currently available engineering materials and to show that technology development depends on (a) introducing new materials and new processes (b) awareness of limitations of existing materials and processes. Topics include:

Basic unit of atoms and molecule and how materials are formed from the basic units. Atomic and atomic coordination, atomic order in solids and molecular disorder, single-phase materials and molecular phases, ceramic polymer materials, conducting materials, magnetic and electrical materials, phase diagrams, processing and development of microstructure/ composites. Performance of materials and devices. Designing with different materials, performance criteria and standards. Selected case studies of material selection.

**PHY346.1 Advanced Materials Science Laboratory (For Material Science Students)**This course is designed to introduce the students with specialization in material Science to basic principles of experimentation using different types of materials. Simple experiments that show how materials behave under different environmental exposures will be carried out. Visits to materials industries and Engineering materials workshop is a vital part of this practical course.

**PHY 350.2: Industrial Training**

This course is designed to introduce the students to the everyday practices in the industries. The students are attached to the related industries for a period ranging from three to six months under the national SIWES programme. The students are supervised by the high level industrial personnel. University supervisors make unannounced visits to the sites to monitor the progress of the students at least twice during the department. The students are expected to write a details report of their programme and present an oral report to the staff and students of the department after the programme.

**PHY351.1 Electronics I**To introduce students to the techniques of electronic measurements and application of relevant electronic instruments and components. Electron emission and the devices (Schottky, Zeener, Tunnel and LED etc) semi-conductor devices (FET, MSFET and Tunnel Diodes), Oscillators, Different types of amplifiers, e.g. transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers, power amplifiers and differential amplifiers. Filters and rectification process-half and full wave rectification-smoothing, three phase rectifier network. Analysis and design of multistage amplifier network, junction diodes, light emitting diode photo-cell

**PHY 356.2 Advanced Electronics Workshop Electronics (students**This course is designed to introduce the students with specialization in Electronics to basic principles of electronic experimentation. Simple experiments that show how electricity is controlled by using devices called components and IC’s would be applied to illustrate the principles of circuit designing. Other topics to be covered will include testing and designing of circuits, trouble shooting, analysis, hoe to solder, case study and a mini-designed and tested circuit.

**PHY 362.1 Geophysical Exploration I –Gravity and Magnetics**This course is a continuation of PHY 361.1 and is an introductory aspect of Geophysical exploration using gravity and magnetic methods. Gravitational acceleration and potential; Application of Newton’s Law. The earth’s gravitational field and its relation to Gravity Exploration. Instruments for measuring gravity on land and Fundamental principles and Instruments. Basic concepts; Magnetism of the earth. Susceptibility of Rocks; Magnetic effects of Bodies. Interpretation of magnetic data.

**PHY 409.1 Physical Optics**Wave equation in rectangular and polar coordinates, superposition of waves; production of coherent sources by division of wave fronts and of amplitude; applications. Michelson and Jamin Interferometers with applications. Multiple beam interference by division of amplitude and wave front-Fabry-Perot etalon, Fresnel and Fraunboffer diffraction patterns, polarization of lights.

**PHY 434.2 Atomic and Nuclear Physics**Nuclear structure and properties; Nuclear models and nuclear reactions; vector model of the atom. Nuclear spectroscopy; X-ray spectra; alkali spectra. A Zeeman and Stark effect. Fundamental particles, strong and weak electromagnetic interactions. Resonance.

**PHY 442.1 Solid State Physics I**Crystal structure, Diffraction Studies in solids and X-ray crystallography and its experimental methods. Theory of solid, classical free electron theory, quantum theory of electron gas and the band theory of solids. Electrical and thermal properties of solids.

**PHY 443.2 Solid State Physics II**Bond theory of insulators and semi-conductors, Lattice Vibrations, Models for lattice heat capacity, classical model, Einstein model, Debye model, phonons, thermal conductivity, dielectrics and ferroelectrics, Magnetism in solids, magnetic resonance, imperfections in solids, Super-conductivity

**PHY 435.1 Mechanical Properties of Materials**Behavior of different types of materials under stress. Mechanical properties of materials in tension, compression, direct shear, torsion flexure. True stress-strain. Cold work, hardness, impact and fatigue characteristics of materials. Creep and stress rupture. Effect of temperature/environment on mechanical behavior of materials. Mechanism of slip, slip systems. Criteria of resolved shear stress and mechanical twinning and deformation in polycrystalline materials. Impurity effect and yield point phenomena. Introduction to elements of dislocation theory dislocation reactions. Multiplication movement under force. Dislocation interaction with impurities and point defects.

**PHY 452.2 Electronics II**This course introduces students to the application of feedback theory in measurement and digital electronics. Feedback theory; type, networks and applications. The concept of small, medium, large and very large integration and their consequences, Boolean algebra and the nature of two-value variables. Boolean functions and production methods. Logic gates and switching devices, logic design, and minimization techniques reliability design synchronous sequential and combination logic circuits. Analysis of logic gates of various families. Some digital building, blocks. Flip-flip counters, latch registers and doctors. Diode logic, RTL, DECL, Moss and MOSIC. Introduction to D/Aand AID conversion principles. Microprocessors, microprocessor control, flow charts, programs, simple instruction set and control programs.

**PHY 457.2 Network Analysis**This course involves the application of basic mathematical principles to electric circuits. In general, network analysis is concerned with determining the response, given the excitation and the network. In network synthesis, the student will be taught how to design the network given the excitation and desired response. The course outline include:

Current analysis including modal and mesh analysis, equivalent circuits, phasor and complex notations. Signals, systems and waveform. The frequency, Fourier analysis, Different equations, Network Analysis, Network elements, Initial and final conditions, transfer function concepts and types of response, Transform, Properties of Transforms, uses, Partial Fraction Expansions, Poles and Zeros, evaluation of Residues, Initial and Network functions, Two-port parameters, transfer function, Incidental Dissipation, Ladder.

**PHY 461.1 Geophysical data processing I**Introduction to Data Processing – Process of enhancement of seismic data. Operating characteristics of digital computers used in Data Processing. Digital Filtering Convolution. Practical aspects of data processing. Seismic section and presentation. Practical processing flow.

**PHY 462.1 Geophysical prospecting II – Other Methods**Electrical Prospecting methods including DC Resistivity Methods; Telluric Magnetotellutic, induced Polarization, Use of Electrical Methods of prospecting for ground water.

**PHY 436.2 Powder Metallurgy and Ceramics**Characteristics of metal powders. Basic principles of compacting and powder processing. Porous and dense products as they relate to microstructure of materials. Factors affecting physical and mechanical properties of powder. Powder blending, compacting, sintering etc. Sources of mineral raw materials for powder production. Introduction to ceramics; Ceramics processing techniques. Forming and thermal treatment of clay materials to obtain ceramic products. Glasses, glazes, enamels and metals (metallization). Equilibrium and reactions between ceramics. Recrystallization, grain growth and microstructure of ceramics that make them unique.

**PHY 441.2 Modern Materials Trends**Physics of coating paints, Gels and Nanomaterial’s. Surface coating terminology and classification. Thin film coatings (metallic, optical, semiconductor and selective materials), production and applications of Nano materials. Paint Manufacture and applications. Types of adhesives and binders. Theory of adhesion developments and adhesive strength. Formulation of adhesives. Production of Gels and colloids and their applications. Other current and future innovative materials.

**PHY 449.2 Project**Topics for research projects will be assigned near the end of the student’s third year. The projects may be of a theoretical or experimental nature.

**PHY 450.2 Seminar**Emphasis will be on topics of current interest in all areas of physics and applied physics.

**PHY 455.1 Electronic Instrumentation II**Primary sensing elements: Electrical filters, Mechanical springs, Pressure sensitive elements, Flow-rate sensing elements. The principles and practical aspects of transducers (types of transducers and other systems used to measure and control some physical parameters such as: Force, acceleration, temperature, pressure, light intensity, humidity, vibration. Signal conditioning and conversion, Transducers bridge, Instrumentation amplifiers, analog-Digital data and sampling; A/D and D/A converters, interference, grounding, screens and shielding, noise reduction. Signal recovery; signal filtering, signal averaging, signal correlation, signal coding. Uses of operational amplifier and digital systems. Modulation and filter circuits.

**PHY 463.2 Geophysical Data Processing II**Special techniques of enhancement of geophysical data including multiple suppression techniques, migration, Amplitude-versus – offset (AVO). Current techniques etc.

**PHY 464.2 Practical Methods**This course is designed to introduce the students to specialization in the techniques for data collection, and analysis through experiments. Simple experiments in applied geophysics with emphasis on practical work will be carried out. New techniques will also be introduced when they arise.

**ELECTIVES**

**PHY 412.1 Problem solving and Technical Writing**The aim of this course is to introduce students to an important aspect of any research finding – Reporting, presenting your results in an attractive way. Also, it is important that an undergraduate student should be able to define, analyze and possibly attempt to find solutions to the problem. The course will cover: Introduction to problem formulation, identification, analysis and solutions. The main scientific approach to different types of problem. Examples could be drawn from the natural world, engineering and the prevailing, environmental problems. At the end of this section, the student should be able to formulate, analyze and suggest solutions to social problems in a scientific manner.

General introduction to technical writing (hints on planning, current, presentation and conclusions), Different types of writing and how they relate to the audience. Specific presentation of thesis with special reference to layout, abstract, introduction, conclusion and referencing other materials. Writing a dissertation, journal paper, technical reports. Presenting seminars, special projects and research reports. Project proposals and how to apply for research grants. Writing the first draft, editing and rewriting you own writing. Writing the submittal letters.Responding to corrections suggested by reviewers and correcting proofs. The importance of units and their abbreviations, general abbreviation s and standard symbols. Figures and how to captions your figures. Expression to avoid and apply in your writings.

**PHY 411.2 Applied Geophysics (for non-Geophysics majors)**Introduction to Applied Geophysical methods including gravity methods, electrical and magnetic method, electromagnetic surveys, seismic methods, nuclear geophysical methods. Areas of application of the above methods; introduction to data processing and interpretation. Geophysical instrument involved in the various methods.

**PHY 441.2 Powder Metallurgy**Solidification of liquid metals and alloys, casing processes and defects. Cold and hot working processes of pressing, forging, extrusion, deep drawing, rolling, casting, etc. metallography –Optical microscope and introduction to electron microscopy.

**PHY 454.2 Microwaves (Antennas and Propagation)**Theory dipole antenna arrays, beam shaping. Types of antennas, antenna gain. E.M. wave propagation, Noise, guided waves and wave guide structure. Cavity resonators and types of resonators.

**PHY 490.2 Numerical Methods**Solution of ordinary differential equations: Linear equations, finite difference method for boundary value problems. Non-linear equations, Runge-Kutta and Shooting algorithms. Method of quasi-linearization. Partial differential equations: parabolic equations, explicit finite, differences scheme. Implicit scheme. Elliptic and hyperbolic equations and finite differences. Finite element methods.

**GLY 102.2 Introduction Lab/Field Practice in Geology**This is purely a Laboratory and fieldwork course. It includes megascopic identification of common rock-forming minerals and common rock types. Interpretations of simple topographic and geologic maps. Identification of index macrofossils and correlation exercises and geochemical analysis.

**GLY 201.1 Stratigraphy and Historical Geology**Element of Chrono, Litto, Bio, Magneto and Seismic stratigraphy. Global regression and transgression. Principles of stratigraphy. Stratigraphic terminology, nomenclature, classification and procedure. Stratigraphic correlation, facies analysis. Basins and stragigraphic evolution of sedimentary basins (emphasize Benue Trough) and Geohistory analysis. Practical to include facies map, correlation and stratigrahic cross-sections.

**MTH 250.2 Elementary Differential Equations**First order ordinary differential equations; Existence and uniqueness. Second order differential equations with constant coefficients. General theory of the nth order linear equations. Laplace transform solution of initial value problem. SturnLioville equations in two independent variables. Application of C.D.C. and P.D.E. of physical, life and social sciences.

**MTH 324.1 Complex Analysis I**Functions of a complex variable. Limits and continuum of functions of a complex variable. Differentiating Cauchy-Rieman equations. Analytic functions. Bilateral transformations, conformal mapping, contour integrals. Cauchy’s theorem and its consequences. Convergence of sequences and series of function of a complex variables. Power series, Taylor series. Laurent expansion. Isolated singularities and residues.

**GLY 346.1 Elementary Surveying**Review of vectors. Equations of curves and surfaces. Vector differentiation and applications. Gradient, divergence and curl. Vector integrals, line; surface and volume integrals. Green’s Stroke’s and tensor algebra. Symmetry; Cartesian Tensors.

**MTH 432.2 Mathematical Methods**Calculus o variation: Lagrange’s functional and associated density. Necessary condition for a weak relative Extremum Hamilton’s principles. Lagrange’s equations and geodesic problems. The Du Bois-Raymond equation and corner condition. Variable end-points and related theorems. Sufficient conditions for a minimum. Isoperimetric problems. Variational integral transforms. Laplace, Fourier and Hankel transforms. Complex variable methods convolution theorems. Application to solution of differential equation. Pre-requisite MTH224.2

**CSC 282.2 Computer Programming II**Review of Fortran programming with exercises. Principles of good programming, structured programming concepts, debugging and testing, string processing, file principles internal searching and sorting, data structures, recursion.

Environmental Physics Research Team