Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Management

Clinical Pharmacy & Management

Name of Department:                               Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Management
Name of Ag.Head Of Deparment:          Dr. E. M. Didia 
Contact E-mail:                                          This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.           
Contact Phone Number(s):                    08033391473, 08099088891

COURSE DESCRIPTION FOR CLINICAL PHARMACY & MANAGEMENT

YEAR THREE         FIRST SEMESTER

PCM 331.1:    Pathology I                 2 Units

Anatomical Pathology

The normal cell and the fundamentals of disease process; causative mechanisms of disease progression and effects of the disease (I & II).

Structural and functional changes associated with pathological disturbances of inflammation. Cell injury and repair (I & II)

Neoplasia and its clinical response (I & II)

Cardiovascular system / disease: Blood vessels and the Heart, fluid and Haemo dynamic derangement, Ischaemic Heart Disease, Angina Pectoris, Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure And Hypertension, Thromboembolism (I & II)

Respiratory disorders: bronchial asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Tuberculosis, Servere Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) (I & II)

Gastrointestinal disease: Cancer of the Mouth, Oesophagus, Stomach and Colon; Hepatitis, Primary Liver Cell Carcinoma, Cirrhosis (I & II)

Renal disorder including nephropathy associated with Malaria; Bone, Skin and Nervous System disorders (I & II)

 

YEAR THREE         SECOND SEMESTER

PCM 332.2:  Pathology II                1 Unit

Chemical Pathology

Nutritional Disorders: Obesity, Vitamin, Mineral and Protein Deficiency

Fluid and Haemodynamic derangement / shock, other metabolic disorders (including congenital abnormalities) (I & II)

Endocrine disorders: Pituitary, Thyroid and Adrenal Disease, Reproduction and Infertility (I & II)

 

Haematology

Blood disorders including Anaemia and Thromboembolism (I & II)

Haemoglobinopathies including Thalasseamias

Lymphomas and Leukaemias (I & II) including Burkitt’s Lymphoma

Tropical splenomegaly syndrome and bleeding disorders (including Haemophilia)

Autoimmune Deficiency Diseases

 

Medical Microbiology

Infectious disease: tropical diseases / malaria typhoid fever and tuberculosis

Infectious diseases II: Viral infectious; HIV/AIDS, Ebola, Yellow Fever, River Blindness Lassa Fever

 

PCM 333.2:  Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics I              3 Units

A. Definition of Biopharmaceutics, drug administration fate of drug after administration, drug performance. B. structure and properties of biological membrane, membrane model. pH> partition principles, biological barriers in the system. Blood-brain, blood. CSF. Blood testis, etc placenta barrier. Physico-chemical properties and pharmaceutical (formulation) factors affecting the process of absorption distribution, metabolism, excretion of drugs. Consideration of the process of drug disposition, absorption, distribution and excretion. Routes of administration and influence of mode of administration on drug bioavailability - Biological signals from drugs, of drug molecules/Drug protein bonding drug-enzyme interaction, drug receptor. Combination and the effects of the drug on bio energetic; CSF, Plasma, serum, urine use in pharmacokinetic studies; Definition of terminology and symbols use in pharmacokinetics; Rates and modes of reactions; Drug absorption rates, physiologic models; Drug clearance; Hepatic elimination of drug enterohepatic cycle; IV kinetics; Dosage regimen, single and multiple; Non -linear pharmacokinetics. Biostatistics

 

YEAR FOUR            FIRST SEMESTER

PCM 431.1:      Pharmacy Management       2 Units

 

Advanced concepts in community pharmacy management for the student who plans to become a pharmacy owner or manager. Topics include operational, personnel, and financial management; marketing; layout and design; and the delivery of pharmaceutical care in a community pharmacy setting. Hospital pharmacy as an organization, Organizational structure of the hospital pharmacy; management and administration; health professionals and lines of responsibility in the healthcares delivery system. Hospital pharmacy services; job description, drug distribution, and control operational, polices, development of formulary system, record keeping, prepackaging of patients medication drug information services, Managing drug supply (drug procurement; quality assurance; storage, distribution and inventory control/management, intellectual property rights and patenting of inventions; ethics and good business practice, Concepts of marketing as they apply to the pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical products, and the health care environment.

 

432.1:      Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics II       2 Units

Definition of Biopharmaceutics, drug administration fate of drug after administration, drug performance. The physico-chemical properties and pharmaceutical (formulation) factors affecting the process of adsorption distribution, metabolism, excretion of drugs. Structure and properties of biological membranes, membrane models, partition principles, biological barriers in the system. Blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier and the blood-placenta barrier. Focuses on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion coupled with dosage and the parameters of clearance, volume of distribution, and bioavailability. These processes determine the concentration of drug at the site of action in the body. Routes of administration that influence the mode of administration on drug availability. Covers the quantitative relationship between dose and effect as a frame work to interpret measurement of drug concentrations in biological fluids, and pharmacokinetic principles using mathematical processes and descriptive parameters that describe the time course of drugs in the systemic circulation and the relationship of drug concentrations to observed effect. Spatial Control of Drug Action Theoretical consideration of the pharmacokinetics of target aimed drug delivery drug input functions and body transfer. Function in pharmacokinetics introduction to laplace formula in pharmacokinetics model.

 

YEAR FOUR                SECOND SEMESTER

 

PCM 433.2:              Pharmacotherapeutics I   3 Units

An integrated approach (pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics) to nutrition and the etiology and treatment of adrenergic-based diseases, cholinergic-based diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. The functioning of the Cardiovascular system, (i) the means by which drugs alter cardiovascular function, (ii) the importance of cardiovascular pharmacology, iii) prevention and management strategies for cardiovascular conditions, including pharmacotherapy and non-drug measures, (iv) assessing cardiovascular diseases and drug therapy, and (v) developing complete patient specific pharmacotherapy plans that include specific recommendations, clear and accurate rationale for recommendations, monitoring, and patient education. The functioning of the renal system in health and disease, (i) the means by which drugs alter kidney function and kidney function alters drug disposition, (ii) the importance of drug chemical structure on pharmacological and therapeutic actions, (iii) the therapeutic applications of drugs that modify kidney function, and (iv) management of complications in patients with kidney disease. Respiratory diseases (i) the coagulation pathways, cardiac electrophysiology, and respiratory pathophysiology, (ii) the means by which drugs alter and respiratory function, (iii) the importance of respiratory pharmacology, (iv) prevention and management strategies for respiratory conditions, including pharmacotherapy and non-drug measures, (v) respiratory diseases and drug therapy. The hematology section addresses anaemias; and coagulation disorders; and acute and chronic anticoagulation. Major pulmonary topics are acute and chronic asthma; COPD; cystic fibrosis; and pulmonary function testing. Infectious diseases (i) the functioning of the immune system in health and disease, (ii) the role of pathogens in causing infections, and (iii) the therapeutic applications of antimicrobial agents in combating infections, (iv) the biology of human pathogens, (v) the role and mechanisms of various pathogens in causing infections, (vi) the functioning of the immune system in health and disease, and (vii) the therapeutic applications of antimicrobial agents in combating infections. Emphasis in this course will be placed on disease pathophysiology, rational selection of appropriate antimicrobial drug therapy, appropriate monitoring of patients for drug efficacy and safety, and drug interactions.

 

 

 

PCM 434.2: Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Care           2 Units   

Pharmacy in primary health care and clinical roles of Pharmacists.

Clinical concepts practice. Interprofessional relationship; medical terms abbreviations, laboratory values and interpretations as related to disease.

 

PCM 435.2:    Pharmacy Practice                3 Units

The course is designed to prepare students to be able to offer efficient pharmaceutical services particularly in hospitals and community pharmacies. Patient education and counseling, rational use of drugs, various approaches to dispensing of medicines including unit dose dispensing, use of robots etc and therapeutic drug monitoring. Ethical Dispensing - dispensing of ethical preparations in hospital. Appraisal of prescription   and   prescription   pattern.   Hospital   bulk dispensing. Revision of basic dispensing.

Pharmacoeconmics and ethics of pharmaceutical practice. (National and International codes of ethics). The principles of hospital pharmacy -drug distribution, pharmacy and therapeutic committees, drug utilization review, evaluation of drug therapy and modern consumer clinical oriented services in institutional pharmacy practice-will be discussed.

 

YEAR FIVE              FIRST SEMESTER            

PCM 531.1:               Pharmacotherapeutics II          3 Units

Emphasis in this class will be placed on rational selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy and the appropriate monitoring of patients for drug efficacy and safety. Immunology Oncology Hematology and Rheumatology The normal immune and hematopoietic systems, immunopharmacology and the pathophysiology of diseases that fall into two conceptually distinct, but often overlapping and interrelated areas malignancies of solid organ origin and diseases of the immune system, including hematologic malignancies, autoimmune disorders, anemias and other immune dysfunction, (i) a discussion of normal cell proliferation, differentiation, and death, contrasting these processes to the etiologies of immune and cancer related diseases, (ii) the means by which drugs alter cellular behavior, (iii) the importance of drug chemical structure on pharmacologic or therapeutic actions, and (iv) -the therapeutic applications of drugs used in the treatment and supportive care of patients with oncology and immune disorders. Central nervous system (I) the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease, (ii) the means by which drugs alter CNS function, (iii) the importance of drug chemical structure on pharmacological and therapeutic actions, and (iv) the therapeutic applications of drugs which modify CNS function. Emphasis in this class will be placed on CNS conditions that are amenable to drug therapy.

Pharmacotherapeutics management, Endocrinology. Topics include diabetes and its complications; metabolic syndrome; osteoporosis; obesity; hormone replacement therapy; contraception and infertility; and thyroid and adrenal disorders.Pharmacotherapeulics management of gastrointestinal diseases. Major gastrointestinal disorders include pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease; diarrhea and constipation; alcoholic liver disease; acute liver failure; peptic ulcer.

 

PCM 532.1:                Clinical Pharmacy (Clerkship)                   3 Units

Supervised student rotation to selected medical wards in a given hospital, Activity should involve medication record review, actual case studies, drug therapy monitoring and rationale for use of drugs in disease states. Principles of clinical pharmacokinetics of various drugs and their application to various disease states. Development of dosage regimens and interpretation of serum drug levels based on pharmacokinetics concepts. The site to be used will include the University Teaching Hospital, a tertiary care psychiatry hospital or other approved specialist hospital and community Pharmacies. Each student will be rotated through the sites. Each student will make an oral case presentation and a written report at the end of each rotation,

 

 

PCM 534.1:    Clinical Pharmacy Practical             1 Unit

The practical exercises which will be carried out in Clinical Pharmacy Skill Acquisition Laboratory has the primary objective of equipping the students with the necessary skills required to ensure that our graduates are well prepared to assume a progressive pharmacy practice in a dynamic health care environment. The practical manual to be used for the exercises is divided into four main categories: Communication skills for pharmacists; Physical assessment skills; Interpretation of Laboratory Results; Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)

The practical exercise to be done are designed to equip students with physical assessment skills as well as interviewing, counselling techniques needed for clinical practice so as to produce future pharmacists who will become visibly indispensable members of the health team. Simulated case studies will be used to assess case studies, interpret laboratory results and proffer solutions to the presented cases in the area of medication therapy management. At the end of the programme, students will be assessed on performance- based exam which includes observed clinical skills examination with emphasis on medication therapy management, and patient’s assessment as reported in their laboratory notebooks and presentation skills. Most importantly, students will be expected to master all medical terminologies, as it pertains to the particular topics focused on during laboratory practical assignments.

 

YEAR FIVE      SECOND SEMESTER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

PCM 535.2:    Literature Evaluation and Communication Skills 2 Units

The course introduces the student to the use of drug literature in the promotion of safe, effective and rational drug therapy. It helps the students to develop the skills for communicating effectively with other health care professionals and patients, Drug information and retrieval and literature evaluation, resources needed for the establishment of a drug information centre and the provision of drug information service; pharmacist's clinical role; communication skills and body language; drug information centre versus poison information centre.

PCM 536.2:     Introduction to Public Health         2 Units

The course will an overview of epidemiological method (types of epidemiological studies, sampling techniques, sample size and power), and design and evaluation of clinical trials; epidemiology of communicable and non-communicable diseases. It will also cover literature search, data gathering modalities, questionnaire design, approaches to data analysis, operation all research and experimental design and report writing. Other areas include principles and concept of primary health care (PHC); drug use and management in PHC (commonly used drugs, information/education in primary health care; traditional medicine in PHC with emphasis on health technology and available resources, community participation etc; Drug use in infertility and family planning management; nutrition good nutrition, nutritional states of the community and drug management/prevention of malnutrition the provision of preventive, curative and rehabilitates services and public education/entertainment special emphasis on the role pharmaceutical care in promoting public health.

PHA 501.2:     Project                       6 Units

Each student is expected to carry out an individual research project supervised by an academic staff. Such project will be assigned at the beginning of the final year (500 level). The research result is presented, bound for grading after a project seminar presented by each student.

 

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