Department of Chemical Pathology

Department of Chemical Pathology

Ag.Head Of Deparment:         

Dr. E. P. Odum

 

Contact E-mail:                     

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Contact Phone Number(s):             

 

 

DEPARTMENTAL OVERVIEW AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

The department of Chemical Pathology is one of the major departments of the University and one of the first ports of calls of the medical students during their clinical posting.

 

The department handles courses for the first year clinical students (400 level) and also renders diagnostic services to the Teaching Hospital.

 

The major function of this department is to demonstrate and impart to students and clinicians the ability to recognize disease based on the biochemical changes that occur with disease processes. To do this effectively, the department is structured into teaching and service units with a head of department overseeing both.

 

In the teaching unit of this department, we have adequate manpower and structured course content.

 

In the service unit, we have in addition to the consultants, well trained medical laboratory scientists that produces reliable laboratory results while the consultants interprets the results and do clinical consultations.

 

DEPARTMENTAL OBJECTIVES

The major objectives of the department of Chemical Pathology of this University include:

  1.  To inculcate in the students during their training in the department the ability to recognize and make diagnosis based on the biochemical changes in various disease conditions through well structured and delivered lectures, practical and tutorials.
  2. To render diagnostic and consultancy services to the teaching hospital.
  3. To expand the frontiers of knowledge through well organized and properly executed research.
  4. To carry out such other duties as shall as shall be vested in it by the University authority.
  5. To join hands with other departments of the University in the production of high level manpower for the nation’s health care delivery system.
  6. To ensure that our products (students and graduates) can compete with others of the same level all over the world.

 

TEACHING & LEARNING METHODS

The teaching of the course is carried out by well trained and experienced lecturers in the field.

 

We have adequate classrooms and well equipped laboratories for practical sessions. We have the right caliber of technical staff for the practical demonstrations.

 

The posting is done along with junior surgery, junior medicine, pharmacology, histopathology, haematology and medical microbiology for the first six months of the fourth year (400 level).

During this period, the students are taught four hours of theory every week and three hours of practical.

 

After the first six months, the students will start block postings where they spend the rest of the remaining five to six months rotating in turn through Chemical Pathology (1 month), Anatomical Pathology (1 month), Medical Microbiology (1 month), Haematology (1 month), and. Pharmacology (1 month). During this 1 month rotation in our department, didactic lectures are delivered every day along with practical. The practical sessions are carried out by the students under the supervision of lecturers and medical laboratory scientists. Assessment tests (three) are given before the students sit for the Part II MBBS examination.

 

Successful candidates at the Part II MBBS exam proceed to the next level (500 level) while unsuccessful candidates go through the re-sit exam in three months time. Before the final main examinations and the re-sit exam, tutorials and revision classes are organized to reinforce information given to students in course of the posting.

 

Mandatory 75% attendance in lecturers, practical sessions and tutorials is required for admission into the Part II MBBS exams

 

EVALUATION / ASSESSMENT (SCORING SYSTEM)

Students are assessed on the following areas:

  1. Attendance- must make up to 75% attendance in classes to be admitted into the examination.
  2. Continuous Assessment: a total of three (3) assessments are given before the main examination and an extra make-up assessment is given before the re-sit exam. The average of the scores obtained in these assessment are taken and computed as 30% of the main final examination at this level (400 level):

 

1st- 100marks

2nd- 100marks

3rd-100marks

Total - 100marks.

 

This total is divided by 3. The result of this division is multiplied by 0.3 to convert to 30%. This is now to be added to the 70% final exam score.

 

  1. Main examination: 3 papers + Viva voce

100marks 100marks

100marks 100marks

Ist- MCQ

2nd- ESSAY

3rd- PRACTICAL

4th- VIVA VOCE

TOTAL    400marks

 

 

This total is divided by 4. The result of this multiplied by 0.7 to convert to 70%.

 

OVERALLASSESSMENT = 30% + 70% = 100%

The department uses a closed marking system for marking essays.

 

SERVICE FACILITIES

In terms of service, we have the basic equipment and reagents for service. The space available for laboratory work is for now adequate. We have offices and more facilities for expansion.

 

We have adequate teaching laboratory that can conveniently take 50 students.

 

We have adequate classrooms with proper ventilation and teaching aids for lectures.

The following services are rendered by this department to the Teaching Hospital:

  1. Liver functions tests
  2. Renal functions test
  3. Glucose estimation - Random and fasting
  4. Bicarbonate estimation.
  5. Bilirubin estimation (Total / Conjugated)
  6. Electrolytes (Na, K, HCO, Calcium) estimation
  7. Inorganic Phosphorus
  8. Uric acid
  9. Lipid profile
  10. Enzymes-LF enzymes, CK, ACP
  11. Hormonal assays
  12. PSA

The department runs a metabolic clinic for the hospital and the following cases are managed:

  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Endocrinopathies
  • Obesity & Metabolic syndromes
  • Gout
  • Etc

 

COURSE CONTENT

  1. Introduction to Chemical Pathology
  2. Variations in laboratory results
  3. Sodium and water homeostasis and disorders
  4. Potassium homeostasis and disorders
  5. Renal functions test
  6. Acid-base balance and disorders
  7. Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium balance & disorders
  8. Vitamins
  9. Lipid, Lipoproteins & disorders
  10. Carbohydrate metabolism and disorders
  11. Gastric, Pancreatic function test & Malabsorption syndrome
  12. Liver functions tests
  13. Plasma proteins and disorders
  14. Plasma enzymes in diagnosis
  15. Chemical Pathology of pregnancy
  16. Chemical Pathology of Hypertension
  17. Clinical Chemistry of the New born
  18. Porphyrias
  19. Hyperuricaemia and Gout
  20. Tumour Markers and Paraneoplastic syndromes
  21. Introduction to Endcrinology
  22. The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary gland
  23. Thyroid axis & Disorders
  24. Adrenal axis & Disorders
  25. Gonadal axis & Disorders
  26. Endocrinopathics in HIV/AIDS
  27. Inborn errors of Metabolism
  28. The CSF in Health and Disease
  29. Role of the Physician in production of valid laboratory results
  30. Obesity
  31. Near Patient Testing
  32. Metabolic Bone Disease
  33. Principles and practice of Ethics in Medicine

 

 

PRACTICAL COURSE CONTENT

  1. Introduction to S. L. Unit/Instrumentation
  2. Specimen collection / Safety in the Laboratory
  3. Urinalysis I: Urine collection, preservation & Examination
  4. Urinalysis II: Urinary deposits, reducing substances in urine
  5. Urinalysis III: Proteinuria, Ketonuria
  6. Urinalysis IV: Bile pigments, Urobilinogen & pH
  7. Urinalysis V: Urinary Calcium estimation
  8. Principles of plasma electrophoresis
  9. CSF examination
  10. Laboratory results and interpretations.
  11. Special Calculations in Clinical Chemistry:
  1. Creatinine Clearance and Correction
  2. Anion Gap
  3. Osmolarity
  4. Selectivity Index
  5. Fractional Excretion of a substance
  6. Low Density Lipoprotein estimation (Friedwald’s formular)
  7. Calcium Correction
  1. Urea, Creatinine measurement in Plasma
  2. Bilirubin measurement in Plasma
  3. Measurement in Plasma enzymes of diagnostic significance
  4. Serum electrolyte measurements
  5. Plasma glucose measurement
  6. Plasma Bicarbonate & Uric acid estimation
  7. Plasma Calcium, Phosphorus estimation

 

RESEARCH

The University, college of health sciences, faculty of basic medical sciences and the department of Chemical Pathology encourage individual and group research aimed at advancing knowledge.

 

Presently there is a departmental' study going on to review and update the reference ranges for the various analytes in this population.

 

EQUIPMENT LIST

  1. Flame Photometer                   -           1
  2. Spectrophotometers                -           1
  3. Colorimeter                             -           1
  4. Water bath                              -           1
  5. Weighing balance                   -           1
  6. Centrifuge                               -           1
  7. Refrigerators                           -           1
  8. Fire extinguisher                     -           1
  9. Test tubes                                -           variable
  10. Pipettes                                   -           variable
  11. Micro Pipette                          -           5
  12. Mixer                                       -           1         
  13. Test tube rack                          -           10       
  14. Ion selective electrode machine         1
  15. Reagents (various - clinistix, multistix, salts, pH paper, Acetest, Ketostix. Albustix, various reagent kits for various analytes etc)

 

 

CONCLUSION

With the facilities available as show in this handbook and which will be for physical inspection, the department is poised to carry out its activities to the University and the teaching hospital.

 

Enough opportunities and facilities are still available for improvement and expansion.

 

This department is also dedicated to and has also being repositioned for the training and re-training of service staff.