Department of Pharmacology.

Department of Pharmacology

Ag.Head Of Deparment:         

Dr. U. O. Georgewill

 

Contact E-mail:                     

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Contact Phone Number(s):             

08036662936

 

The Successive Headship of the Department of Pharmacology is as follows:

S/No

Head of Department

Period

1.

Dr. (Mrs.) O. O. Ebong

1983 - 1985

2.

Dr. N. Brambaifa

1985 - 1987

3.

Dr. (Mrs.) O. O. Ebong

1987 - 1990

4.

Dr. I. C. Ezeamuzie

1990 - 1991

5.

Dr. N. Brambaifa

1992 - 1994

6.

Dr. R. N. P. Nwankwoala

1995 - 1997

7.

Dr. A. W. Obianime

1998 - 2000

8.

Dr. E. B. Dede

2000 - 2002

9.

Professor (Mrs.) O. O. Ebong

2002 - 2003

10.

Dr. E. B. Dede

2004 - 2006

11.

Dr. O. A. Georg ewill

2006 - 2008

12.

Dr. I. M. Siminialayi

2008 - 2012

13.

Professor A. W. Obianime

2012 - 2015

14

Dr. H. D. Kagbo

2015 – 2018

15.

Dr. (Mrs.) U.O. Georgewill

2018 – date

 

 

Objectives of Undergraduate Studies in Pharmacology

  1.  General (Development of Attitudes):
  1. The students are expected to exercise scientific reasoning and make logical deductions in relation to drug action.
  2. The student is expected to comprehend standard Statistical methods with respect to drug action.
  3. The student is encouraged to develop a critical attitude towards claims for the therapeutic action of drugs.
  4. The student is expected to be familiar with reference works in pharmacology and capable of going to the original literature when necessary.
  5. The student is expected to correlate knowledge obtained from other disciplines to that of pharmacology and to anticipate the use of pharmacological principles in connection with the subject of pharmacology.

 

  1. The student should be able to describe general principles of drug action. This involves knowledge of:
  1. Definition, scope, and historical aspects of the subject.
  2. Drug absorption distribution, biotransformation, excretion; time courses and factors affecting dosage.
  3. Biological standardization and Bioassay.
  4. Receptor theory
  5. Adverse effects of drugs, tolerance and dependence and drug resistance.
  6. Placebos and clinical trials

 

  1.  The student is expected to show a core of knowledge concerning the important drugs affecting the various systems of the body like C.N.S. peripheral nervous systems, Gastrointestinal Tract, Cardiovascular, Hormonal and other systems. The core knowledge of drugs may include any or all of the following: -

 

  • Name
  • Sources (historical/development)
  • Absorption, distribution and transformation Excretion
  • Site and mechanism of action Standardization and storage Dose and route of administration Toxic effects
  • Indications and contradictions Local availability and cost.

 

  1.  At the end of the course, the MBBS student should be able to utilize the knowledge acquired to prescribe drugs or remedies for diseased states in man. He will be able to understand the pathological condition of altered physiological states from his knowledge of pathology and other clinical sciences and prescribe appropriate drugs,

 

 

COURSE CONTENTS

MDS 331.1:    General and Autonomic Pharmacology

Introduction: Definitions, Aims and Objectives.

Origin and Sources of drugs; Drug names, Development of new drugs, Sources of Information., Drug administration, Routes, Dosage, Drug absorption, distribution and excretion. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics.

 

 

General Principles of Drug Action: Theories of drug / receptor interaction. Concepts of affinity and efficacy of agonistic and antagonists. Structure/activity relationship. Direct measurement of drug binding to receptors. Concepts in drug antagonism: Competitive and non-competitive, irreversible and receptor in activation, receptor desensitization. Bioassay, Biological standardization. L.D and EDS. Drug action in man - compliance; individual variation; presence of other drugs. Drug interaction, tolerance and the achyphylaxis; adverse effects of drugs; effects of diseases, terotogencity. Idiosyncrasy, drug dependence, Pharmacogenetics.

 

Autonomic Nervous System and Neurotransmitters; Review of Neurohumoral Transmission; Cholinergic Receptors; Anticholinesterases; Reversible and irreversible; Muscarinic receptor blockers, Ganglion stimulants and blockers; Noradrenergic system. Synthesis, storage and release of noradrenaline; fate of noradrenaline. Adrenergic Receptors. Actions of Catecholamines. Adrenergic receptor blockers. Drugs that modify noradrenergic mechanism neuron blockers, depleters, false transmitters. Drugs acting on the eye; neuromuscular blockers, competitive and depolarizing blockers.

 

MDS 332: Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System

Introduction to the Pharmacology of CNS Drugs, Sedative/Hypnotic Drugs, Pharmacology of Alcohols, Pharmacology of Antiepileptic Drugs, General Anaesthetics, Local Anaesthetics, Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Pharmacologic Management of Parkinsonism and other Movement disorders, Antipsychotics and Lithium, Antidepressants, Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists, Drugs of Abuse.

 

MDS 333.2: Systems Pharmacology (GIT, Respiratory and Renal Pharmacology)

Drugs Acting on the Alimentary System

Antacids - Gastric antacids; classification and pharmacology of antacids; Gastric antacid in the treatment of peptic ulcer - Antieolinergics, H2 Receptor Antagonist; Ulcer Healing Drugs, Gastrointestinal hormones - Pentagastrine secretion. Digestants - Pharmacology, toxic effects and therapeutic uses. Constipation; Laxatives and Cathartics, Vomitting; Antiemetics, Non specific antidiarrhoeal drugs, drugs used in lipid disorders, cholestyramine, pancreatic, cholecystokinin, Drug promoting gastrointestinal motility, Drugs used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases and systemic encephalopathy.

 

Agents affecting volume and composition of body fluids. The distribution and composition of body fluids. Internal exchange of water and solute - intracellular and extra cellular fluid volumes. External exchanges of water and solute (The Balance Principle). Acid - Base disturbances.

Mechanisms forming salts. Potassium

  • Physiological regulations. Pathological conditions. Magnesium
  • Abnormalities of magnesium metabolism.

 

Drugs Acting on the Respiratory and Renal Systems

Analeptics, Expectorants; Cough suppressants; Mucolytic Agents Oxygen therapy, Bronochodilator drugs; Chronic Bronchities and Emphysema; Hay Fever and Cold; Asthma- Status Asthmatics.

 

Diuretics; Alteration of Urinary pH; Urinary tract Infections; Renal Failure. Kidney Diseases and Drugs Inducing Kidney damage.

 

MDS 334: Cardiovascular System Pharmacology

Heart failure and its Drug Management; Digitalis and allied Cardiac Glycosides; Anti-anginal drugs; Vasodilators; Antihypertensive agents and drug therapy of Hypertension. Ischaemic Heart Disease and its Drug Management; Antiarrhythmic Drugs; Anticoagulants, Antithromobotic and thrombolytic drugs. Drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.

 

Anaemias; Iron Deficiency and other Hypochromic Anaemias; Megaloblastic Anaemia, Iron-Cobolamins -Folates.

 

MDS 335: Chemotherapeutic Agents

Antimicrobial, Antifungal, Antiviral Drugs and Drugs against Human Protozoal Diseases and Antihelminthic drugs.

 

Microbes in Man; Mode of Action of Antimicrobial Drugs; Sulphonamides; Penicillins; Cephalosporins Aminoglycoside Antibiotics; Lincomycins; Peptide Antibiotics; Dipgs forthe treatment of Tuberculosis and Leprosy; Miscellaneous Antibiotics - Vancomycin. Spectinomycin, Fulsidic Acid; Other Synthetic Antimicrobial Drugs; Nalidixic acid; Nitrofurantoin; Antifungal Agents; Polyene Antifungal Antibiotics; Fluorinated Pyrimidines; Imidazoles; Miscellaneous Antifungal Agents; Antiviral Agents; Me*N...;n-:?ne; Lie o one; Cytarabine; Adenine.

 

MDS 336: Pharmacology of Endocrine System

Mechanism of Action of Hormones; CNS-Hypothalamus- Adenohypophysis-Endocrine Glands; Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Hormones; Thyroid Hormones and Antithyroid drugs; Parathyroid Hormones, Calcitonin, Diabetes Mellitus; Insulin; Oral Hypoglycaemics; Adrenocortical Hormones; Glucocorticoids, Mineral-ocoids; Hyperaldosteronism; Sex Hormones, Oestrogens, Androgens, Progestagens; Antagonists to Hormones; Pharmacological Methods of Family Planning.

 

MDS 337: Toxicology and Drug Addiction

  1. Introduction: General approach to the treatment of poisons. Agents commonly involved and predisposing factors. General and specific antidotes.

 

  1. Occupational and Environmental Toxicology: Pesticides (Insecticides, Herbicides, fungicides, Rodenticides, Fumigants).
  2.  Food Toxicology: Cyanide Poisoning, Clostridium botulium toxin and other bacterial toxins (Salmonella, Staphylococcus). Hycotoxins, Aflatoxins.
  3. Toxins of Animal Origin: Arthropod toxins and venoms, Scorpion venoms. Reptile toxins (Elapid and viperid snake venoms).
  4. Social Poisons: Amphetamines, cocaine, kolanuts.
  5. Toxicology of Cosmetics (Skin and Hair).
  6. Radiation and Radioactive materials: External radiation exposure, internal emitters, Radiation Potential Standards. Heavy metals.
  7. Drug Interaction Toxicology: Definition and therapeutic importance, mechanisms of drug interaction, common examples and implications of drug-drug and drug-food interactions.

 

MDS 338: Immunopharmacology

Inflammatory Arthropathy and Degenerative Joint Disease; Metabolic Deposition Arthropathy; Analgesics; Non-steroidal Anti­inflammatory Drugs (NSAID); Corticosteroids; Long-term Anti­rheumatic Agents; Gold Salts, d-penicillamine; Chloroquine. Immunosuppressive agents; Levamisole; Gout, Colchicine and Democalcine; Phenylbutazone; Indomethacin, Probenecid; Ethiobenecid, Sulphpyrazone; Allopurinol. Antiallergic and anti­asthmatic drugs. Principles of Drug Allergy and Autoimmunity.

 

MDS 339: Chemotherapy of Malignant Diseases

Major Features of Malignant Disease; Review of Cell Kinetics; Cell- cycle specificity; Cell-cycle Non specificity; Cancer Cell Versus Bacterial Infection; Principles of Cancer Chemotherapy; Adverse Effect of Antineoplastic Drugs, Alkylating Agents; Antimetabilites; Natural products; Anthra-cycline Antibiotics; other Antibiotics Enzymes, Steroid Hormones and Antagonists; Miscellaneous Anti­cancer Drugs; Agents for hnmunotherpy; Radio-activity.

 

M.Sc PROGRAMME IN PHARMACOLOGY (Minimum of 18 Months)

OBJECTIVES: The main function of universities is to teach, conduct research and give service to the community. One of the ways of stimulating academic research is by initiating postgraduate programme. The first intake of students into the MSc programme was in the 1995/96 session since then the programme has been producing specialized manpower in different areas of Pharmacology. Graduate studies in Pharmacology aims at training candidates to acquire advanced knowledge and skillful research techniques as to produce:

  1.  Graduates with in-depth knowledge of Pharmacology.
  2.  Graduates with skills to teach Pharmacology.
  3.  Graduates capable of designing and conducting experiments for undergraduate students.
  4.  Graduates who are vast in rational choice of therapeutic agents to advice physicians and dentists in hospitals.

 

EXAMINATIONS:

  1. All candidates taking the undergraduate courses are required to appear for an examination at the end of the courses.
  2. A student who fails badly may be asked to withdraw from the programme, in accordance with the University regulations. If the candidate fails marginally he may be required to take a remedial examination. The scores in this examination shall not count towards the final grading for the M. Sc degree award.
  3. For the advanced courses, there shall be examination at the end of each semester. The Pass mark for courses shall be a minimum of 50%.
  4. The course work and oral defence of thesis and dissertation shall be assessed in accordance with the University regulations on the M.Sc programme. The candidate will have to satisfy the Board of Examiners at the examination and at oral defence of his/her thesis.

 

THESIS/DISSERTATION:

After approval of the research topic by the Senate of University of Port Harcourt, the student shall carry out his/her research with Supervision. He/she shall write up his/her dissertation in accordance with University of Port Harcourt Postgraduate studies Regulations.

 

SYLLABUS

1.  Undergraduate work: Courses with Examination

1st Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Unit

MDS 301.1

Neuroscience

3

MDS 331.1

General and Autonomic Pharmacology

3

MDS 332.1

Central Nervous System Pharmacology

3

MDS 334.1

Cardiovascular Pharmacology

3

MDS 335.1

Chemotherapeutic Agents

3

Total

 

15

 

 

 

2nd Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Unit

MDS 333.2

GIT, Respiratory and Renal Pharmacology

3

MDS 336.2

Endocrine Pharmacology

3

MDS 337.2

Toxicology and Drug Addiction

3

MDS 338.2

Immunopharmacology

3

MDS 339.2

Cancer Chemotherapy

3

Total

 

15

 

 

COURSES WITHOUT EXAMINATION AUDITED COURSES

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Unit

MDS 221.2

Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology

3

MDS 211.2

Medical Biochemistry I

3

MDS 311.1

Medical Biochemistry II

3

 

 

  1. GRADUATE WORK: ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGY COURSES

M. Sc Pharmacology

1st Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Unit

PHA 830.1

Pharmacokinetics

3

PHA 831.1

Research Techniques and Instrumentation

3

PHA 838.1

Immunopharmacology and Autocoid Pharmacology

3

PHA 836.1

Biostatistics

3

CGS 801.1

ICT and Research Methods

2

Total

 

14

 

 

2nd Semester

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Unit

PHA 832.2

Neuropharmacology

3

PHA 833.2

Cardiovascular Pharmacology

3

PHA 834.2

Chemotherapy

3

PHA 835.2

Seminar

1

PHA 837.2

Toxicology

2

CGS 802.2

Entrepreneurship

2

Total

 

14

 

 

PHA 839.0

Research

6

Grand Total

 

34

 

 

Description of Advanced Pharmacology Courses

PHA 830.1:      Pharmacokinetics

The Course is designed to provide in-depth knowledge in:

  1. Drug absorption, metabolism and elimination
  2. Linear and non-linear pharmacokinetic model
  3. Dosage regimentation based on pharmacokinetic parameters
  4. Kinetics of drug concentration with response
  5. Bioavailability and pathophysiologic factors in pharmacokinetics.

 

PHA 831.1: Research Techniques and Instrumentation

The course aims at having the student design and carry out scientific research. He must be familiar with the variety of analytical methods and their application.

 

PHA 832.2 Neuropharmacology

The course is designed to give the candidate an up to date knowledge of Pharmacological basis of neurological diseases or disorders and therapeutics of current drugs used in disorders of the nervous system. Areas of interest include a Review of the following:

 

  • Neurohumoral transmission and the CNS
  • Neurotransmitters and neurological disorders
  • History and Principles of Anaesthesiology
  • General and Local Anaesthetics
  • The therapeutic gases: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Helium and water vapour
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives: Ethanol
  • Drugs and the treatment of Psychiatric disorder.
  • Drugs effective in the therapy of the Epilepsies.
  • Drugs for Parkinson’s disease, Spasticity and Acute muscle spasms.
  • Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists
  • Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse

 

PHA 833.2: Advanced Cardiovascular Pharmacology

The course is designed to impart advanced knowledge of the following:      Renin   and Angiotensin, Antihypertensive agents, Antiarrhythmic agents, Anti-anginal agents, Positive Ionotropic Agents, Vasodilators, Anti-hyperlipoproteinaemic Agents, Drug management of circulatory shock is also emphasized.

PHA 834.2:     Chemotherapy

The course aims at imparting to the candidate a sound knowledge of pathophysiology of parasitic, neoplastic and microbial diseases, with emphasis on: Mechanism of Action, Pharmacokinetics, Adverse Effects, Therapeutics and Resistance and mechanism of resistance of these drugs used for therapy. Areas that will be covered are:

 

Drugs used in the chemotherapy of Helminthiasis; Antiprotozoal agents: useful in malaria, amoebiasis, giardiasis, Trichomoniasis, leishmaniasis, Trypanosomiasis; Antimicrobial agents: Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, Quinolones and Agents for urinary tract infections; Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol and Erythromycin; Drugs used in the chemotherapy of Tuberculosis and Leprosy; Antifungal Agents, Antiviral Agents, Anticancer Agents.

 

PHA 837.2: Toxicology

Emphasis will be laid on the following: Mechanisms of drug toxicity, Management of acute drug poisoning, Plant, bacterial and animal poisons, Heavy metals and Heavy metal antagonists, Air Pollutants, Solvent poisoning, Vapours and Gases (Aliphatic haloganated hydrocarbon, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, Benzene, Kerosene, Carbon Monoxide).

  • Pesticides
  • Food Toxicology: Cyanide Poisoning, Aflatoxin, Hycotoxins.
  • Radiation and Radioactive Materials - External Radiation Exposure, Internal Emitters, Radiation Protection Standards.

 

PHA 838.1: Immuno-pharmacology and Autocoid

Pharmacology

The course is designed to give in-depth knowledge of pharmacology of autocoids and their therapeutic uses. Emphasis will be laid on the following:

 

Immunosuppressive Agents: Histamine, 5 Hydroxy-tryptamine and their antagonists.

 

Lipid derived autocoids: Eicosanoids and platelet activating factor, Kinins, Intracellular Signalling Agents: Cytokines etc. Drugs used in different Immunopathologies.

Drugs used in the treatment of Asthma

 

The Methylxanthines, Cromolyn Sodium and other Agents.

Drugs employed in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Gout.

 

Analgesics - antiypyretics and anti-inflammatory agents.

Drugs used in different skin and immunoreactive states or disorders.

 

PHA 839.1: Biostatistics

An advanced course covering the following: Organization and Summarization of Data, Descriptive Statistics, Probability, Sampling Distribution; Association, Contingency and Goodness of fit: The Chi-Square Distribution, Hypothesis Testing, Choosing the Study Subject and Sampling, Estimation, Non-Parametrics, Design of Experiment and Analysis of Variance, Correlation and Regression, Research Methodology, Vital Statistics, Demography and Health Statistics, Non-parametric methods.

 

Ph.D PROGRAMME IN PHARMACOLOGY INTRODUCTION

The course will provide intensive training in various areas of Pharmacology and are designed for graduates in Pharmacology, Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Veterinary Medicine, Physiology and Biochemistry.

 

The objective of the courses will be to produce competent Basic and Medical Pharmacologistsin Teaching and Research Institutions, in Hospitals and in Industries (especially in Pharmaceutical Drug Production and Quantity and Quality Control Laboratories).

 

The Programme is to be undertaking for duration of three years full time and four years part time after M.Sc. of this Department. The Ph.D programme will be based on independent research work.

 

To obtain a Ph.D in Pharmacology candidate shall submit an acceptable Ph.D thesis, act as a Demonstrator to the Undergraduate student as part of their training, give 3 research seminars on the project work and satisfy all other requirements as stipulated in the Graduate School Prospectus for graduate Students.

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Unit

PHA 931

Research Seminar in Pharmacokinetics

3

PHA 932

Research Seminar in Chemotherapy

3

PHA 933

Research in CNS Pharmacology

3

PHA 934

Recent Advances in Pharmacology Research Seminar

3

PHA 935

Research Seminar in Pharmaco- Epidemiology

3

PHA 936

Project Research Seminar

3

PHA 939

Thesis

6

Total

 

24

 

 

PHA 933: Research Seminars in Central Nervous System Pharmacology

Students will be required to make presentation in the Special areas of the various modulating factors in the CNS.

 

PHA 934: Recent Advances in Pharmacology Research Seminar

Seminar Presentations of Research Projects and Review of Current Literature Related to the Works.

 

PHA 935: Pharmaco- Epidemiology Seminar

This will involve Presentation of Seminars

 

PHA 931: Research Seminar in Pharmacokinetics

 

PHA 936: Research Seminars

Research Seminars will be principally supported by research evidence pertaining to the specific areas of interest.

 

PHA 939: Thesis