Department of Microbiology

Microbiology

Name of Department:                             

Department of Microbiology     

Name of Ag.Head Of Department:       

Dr. C. J. Ogugbue
Contact E-mail:                                      

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Contact Phone Number(s):                  

08108643429

 

INTRODUCTION
 
 Microbiology as a discipline is practical-oriented and is one of the most diverse areas of bioscientific and biotechnological studies. Several sub-disciplines including Environmental, Food, Industrial and Medical Microbiology are of immense benefit to man. Consequently, these areas have generated considerable research and practical interest globally.
In Nigeria, Microbiology has been employed in various establishments. Specifically, the knowledge of Microbiology has  benefited the petro-chemical establishments, food manufacturing /processing industries, government regulatory agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as well as medical services outfits located in the immediate environment and in the country at large.
In line with the National Universities Commission (NUC) and with respect to the Minimum Academic Standard (MACS), the Department emphasises the concept of relevant broad-based training comprising biological, chemical and physical sciences as well as arts. The knowledge impacted is to produce graduate who will be of considerable service to academia, food and agricultural industries, breweries, medical/pharmaceutical establishments, oil/gas industries, etc. In this regard, many of our graduates are self-reliant and gainfully employed in various sectors of the economy including Government Regulatory Agencies, Petro-chemical industries, Food Manufacturing Industries, Public-Health Establishments, Universities, Polytechnics and several Ministries. Thus, the Department contributes to local and national development.
Philosophy
The department is committed to the philosophy of the University of Port Harcourt which is based on academic freedom, tolerance, probity, equal opportunity and respect for cultural diversity.
Vision
The department aims to be ranked among the best in Africa, renowned for its teaching, research, creativity and innovation.
Mission Statement
The Department of Microbiology is dedicated to providing high quality education and research in order to develop internationally competitive professionals with academic excellence, excellent leadership, communication and teamwork skills, who can contribute positively to their community and the world at large.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE DEPARTMENT ARE TO:
a. Advance knowledge in Microbiology in order to enhance the skills and expertise required for self-reliance and gainful employment.
b. Educate the students on the importance of critical thinking in Research and Development using microbiological concepts for the development of our immediate community and the nation, and
c. Enable the students acquire knowledge through broad based training in relation to the Minimum Academic Standard (MACS) as required by the NUC, thereby making our graduates competitive in various challenges or ventures.
 
REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION
The minimum entry qualifications for admission into the B.Sc. degree in Microbiology
 are as follows:
a. Five credits in English language, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
(GCE, SSCE, WASCE, or NECO)
b. Acceptably high score (normally 200 and above at UME) OR
Successful completion of the Basic Studies Programme (Remedial course) of this University; and 
c. Certification of medical fitness/good health by the University of Port Harcourt Health Services Department.
 
COURSE LOAD
The normal course load for full time students ranges from 15 (minimum) to 24 (maximum) credit units per semester. In other words no full-time student is permitted to register for less than 15 or more than 24 credit units per semester.
 
REGISTRATION OF COURSES
(1) There are designed periods for normal and late registration of courses every session. Further details on late registration may be obtained from Academic Office of the Registry.
(ii) Course registration is the responsibility of the students’ parent department.
(iii) Designated lecturers in the Department cross-check students/academic records and credentials and sign their registration forms.
(iv) Students are not permitted to sit for examinations in courses for which they have not earlier registered. Breach of this regulation attracts severe disciplinary measures.
 
NOTE
Failed courses must be re-registered by the students but the maximum of 24 credits units per semester must not be exceeded.
Students are not permitted to register for taught courses during the period for industrial training.
 
COURSE ASSESSMENT AND COMPUTATION OF CGPA
(1)     Each and every course is continuously assessed using practical (experimental) reports, quizzes, tests, assignments, etc. Normally, continuous assessment constitutes up to 30% of the marks for the course and administered during the lecture period (i.e. preceding the semester examination).
(ii) The entire semester’s work is further assessed by semester examinations which constitute 70%. Therefore, the final grade of the students in each course is the combination of the continuous assessments and the result of the semester examination. The total score for the semester is 100%. 
(iii) All registered courses other than those audited are to be passed by the student.  The senate has approved the waving of two (2) courses excluding GES courses, Community service, SIWES and project.
(iv) Forty percent (40%) is the pass mark for undergraduate students except for those in College of Health Sciences where pass mark is 50%.
(v) Students are not permitted to repeat any course they have passed.
 
B.Sc. DEGREE IN THE MICROBIOLOGY PROGRAMME
COURSES OFFERED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS 
 
FIRST YEAR
CHM 130.1 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I
Basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist’s point of view. Atomic theory and molecular structure; stoichiometry. The periodic classification of elements. Atomic structure. Chemical bonding. Ionic equilibria. Chemical thermodynamics. Electrochemistry and Chemical kinetics.
CHM 131.2 GENERAL CHEMISTRY II
Application of the principles of chemistry and physical change to the study of the behavior of matter and the interaction between matter.  Course content includes chemical equilibrium, ionic equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, electrochemistry, chemical kinetics, acids and bases, the chemistry of the representative elements and their common compounds with emphasis on the graduation of their properties, brief chemistry of the first series of transition elements, general principles of extraction of metals, introductory nuclear chemistry.
CHM 132.2 INTRODUCTION TO PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
A survey of carbon compounds including an overview of the common functional groups in aliphatic and benzenoid compounds. Introduction to reactants and reactions in organic chemistry.
GES 100.1 COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH
The course seeks to develop in the students a well-informed attitude toward the English Language; and to equip them with knowledge of English communication and study skills that will facilitate their work in the University. Lectures and tutorials will cover the use of the library, study methods, grammar, punctuation and mechanics. Principles of effective writing, word use, reading and comprehension.
GES 102.1 INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY
A brief survey of the scope, notions, branches and problems of philosophy, symbolic logic. Special symbols in symbolic logic. Conjunction, affirmation, negation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statement. Law of thought. The method of deduction using rules of inference and biconditionals. Quantification theory.
GES 101.2 COMPUTER APPRECIATION AND APPLICATION
History of computers. Generalisation and classification of computers. IPO model of computer components of a computer system-hardware and software; software and its applications. Programming language, organisation of data. Data computing technique. Introduction to computer networks. Use of the keyboard as an input device. DOS, windows, word processing, spread sheets. Application of computers in medicine, social sciences, Humanities, Education and Management sciences.
GES 103.2 NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE
A study of Nigerian history and culture in pre-colonial times. Nigerian’s perception of his/her world. Culture areas of Nigeria and their characteristics. Obligations of the citizens. Environmental Sanitation.
FSB 101.1 GENERAL BIOLOGY I
Characteristics of life, Investigation in biology. The scientific substance of life; the unit of life (including methods of study). Activities of cells; the control of metabolic activities, cell division, respiration, protein synthesis, regulation of protein synthesis, Basic principles of inheritance and Genetics.
FSB 102.2 GENERAL BIOLOGY II
The variety of micro and macro organisms and their habitats. Principles of classification of micro and macro organisms, community and habitat ecology. Study of selected microorganisms and macro organisms in relation to their success in various habitats. Analysis of the microorganism, macro flora and macro fauna of assigned habitats.
PHY 101.1 MECHANICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER 
Topic covered in this course will include the following: Motion in one dimension in a plane; work and energy; conservation laws; oscillation; solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics; equilibrium of rigid bodies; gravitation, Galilean invariance, surface tension, elasticity and viscosity.
PHY 102.1 PHYSICS LABORATORY PRACTICE I
Topics covered in this course will include the following: Motion in one dimension in a plane, word and energy, conservation laws, oscillation, solid friction, rotational kinematics and rotational dynamics, equilibrium of rigid bodies, gravitation, Galilean invariance, surface tension, elasticity and viscosity. The course emphasises experimental verification and quantitative measures of physical laws, treatment of measurement errors, graphical analysis. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems; static and rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, viscosity, elasticity, surface tension and hydrostatics.
PHY 115.2    WAVES, OPTICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS 
Thermometry, calorimetry and heat transfer. Geometrical optics will include reflection of light at the plane and curved surfaces and optical instrument. Properties and propagation of sound waves. Sound waves propagating in air column. Doppler Effect.
MTH 110.1 ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY
Elementary notions of sets, subsets, union, intersection, complements, Venn Diagrams. Real numbers, integers, rationals and irrationals, mappings of a set. Real functions and their compositions. Quadratic functions. Cubic functions. Roots of quadratic and cubic functions. Partial functions. Equations with complex roots. Complex numbers. Geometric representation of complex numbers. DeMoirvers series and sequences. Principles of mathematical induction. Binomial theorem. Trigonometric functions of angles, circular functions. Addition theorems. Double and half angles.
MTH120.1 CALCULUS
Function of a real variable, graphs, limits and ideas of continuity. The derivative as limit of rate of change, method of integration. Definite integrals. Application to areas, volume.
 
 
 
SECOND YEAR
BCH 210.1 GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY I
Acidity and alkalinity. pH and pKa values and their effects on cellular activities. Buffers. Chemistry of amino acids, proteins, and their derivatives. Methods of isolation and identification. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Determination and biochemical application of the structures. Chemistry and structures of protein. Determination and biochemical application of the structures. Chemistry and structures of carbohydrates. Their nomenclature, chirality.
BCH 214.1 GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY II
Chemistry and structure of lipids. Chemistry and structure of nucleic acids. Nomenclature of nucleosides and nucleotides; effects of acids and alkali on hydrolysis of nucleic acids. Structures and functions of major cell components. Prokaryotic versus eukaryotic organisms.
CHM 235.1
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY I
Introduction to basic analytical chemistry. The theory of errors; statistical treatment of data, sampling, gravimetric analysis and volumetric methods of analysis.
CHM 260.1
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I
Fundamental theories and principles of chemical reactivity. Chemical reactions and synthesis of non-functional compounds. Reactions and mechanisms of common reactions. Stereochemistry.
CHM 240.2 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I
Introduction to basic physical chemistry. The emphasis is on the properties of gases, the three laws of thermodynamics and the principles of chemical kinetics and electrochemical cell.
FSB 203.2 BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
Procedures for collections, identification and preservation of biological specimens. Wax embedding techniques. Photometry, colorimetry, chromatography. Electrophoresis. Conductometry, Experimental design.
MCB 200.1 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY I
History and development of Microbiology. Characteristics of microorganisms; growth and reproduction. Principles of sterilisation and disinfection. Problems of infectivity. Brief survey of microorganisms as friends and foes. Antimicrobial agents and sensitivity tests.
MCB 201.2
GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY II
Systematic classification of microorganisms. Microbial variation and heredity. Biological and biochemical reactions of microorganisms. Study of laboratory equipment. Staining techniques for identification. Microbiology of air, food, milk and water. Immunological methods for the study of microbial infections.
CSC 280.1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
Historical details of computers. Principles of programming, Programming with FORTRAN Language.
FSB 202.2 GENETICS I
Heritable and non-heritable characteristics Mendelian genetics. Gene interactions, quantitative genetics. Extra-chromosomal inheritance. Sex determination. Elementary probability in genetics. Gene structure and function. Linkages and recombination in eukaryotes. Introduction to recombination in prokaryotes. Chromosome morphology; variation in polity level and chromosome behaviour.
FSB 204.2
GENERAL ECOLOGY II
Ecological factors and cycles. Ecosystems and energy flow, water and nutrient budgets. Population attributes (treatment to include analysis of variance) and organisation and dynamics of ecological communities in soil, fresh water, and sea. Succession and climax. Ecological methods. Man and the biosphere. Increase in human population and its consequences.
MTH 264.2 STATISTICS FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Use of statistical methods in Biology and Agriculture. Frequency distributions. Laws of probability. The binomial poison and normal probability distributions. Estimation and tests of hypothesis. The binomial design of simple agricultural and biological experiments. Analysis of variance and covariance. Simple regression and correction, contingency tables. Some non-parametric tests.
FSC 2CI.2 COMMUNITY SERVICE
The course is directed towards service to the Nigerian community. Students are exposed in a practical way to some of the local problems facing the community surrendering the university, with the purpose of providing solutions to them. The course involves manual labour, gardening and decoration
 
THIRD YEAR
MCB 301.1 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
Microorganisms and other organisms of importance aquatic systems and disposals. Ecology of Microorganisms in fresh water. Pollution and self-purification of water. Brief study of marine microbiology. Disease transmission by water. Microbiological examination of water. Microbiology of waste disposal. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Viable but non-culturable phenomenon in bacteria. The characteristics of the soil environment. Microbial flora and fauna of soil. Microbial activities in soil. Nitrogen cycle; carbon cycle, sulphur cycle phosphorus cycle; mineral transformation by microorganism. Biodegradation and biofuels generation.
MCB 302.1 IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOCHEMISTRY
General principles of immunity; innate, acquired, natural, artificial, humoral and cellular responses. General characteristics of antigens. The cells and organs involved in immune response. Antibodies; unity in diversity; the genetic basis of antibody diversity.  Antibody synthesis; primary and secondary responses. The hypersensitivity reactions (Types I to IV); mechanisms of pathogenesis. Antigen antibody reactions and applications. Autoimmunity. The immunodeficiency diseases. Graft transplant immunology and applications in medicine.
MCB 304.1 MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY
Introduction: Nature, scope and purposes of microbial physiology (experimentation). Review of bacterial anatomy and cytochemistry, cell and molecular biology, carbohydrate metabolism. Bioenergetics photosynthetic/autotrophic living. Solute transport. Enzyme action and control. Biosynthesis of macromolecules: proteins, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, peptidoglycan, lipids: applications in biotechnology and medicine. Growth and population studies. Bacterial nutrition. Continuous culture techniques and applications. Yield concepts and calculations. Metabolism of fats, amino acids, nucleic acids, purines, pyrimidines, steroids, aromatic rings, proteins, Anaplerotic sequences. Chemical toxicity and adaptation. Mechanism of survival.
MCB 305.1 INTRODUCTION TO VIROLOGY
History, scope nature and structure of viruses; functional consequences at cellular level of viral infections. Criteria for viral taxonomy. Replication of viruses. Effects of physical and chemical agent on viruses. Important terms in viral pathogenesis. Rates of spread of viruses in a community. Patterns of disease, causes of infection, viral pathogenesis and host defence. Cell culture, microscopy and serology.  
MCB 309.1 FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
Food mediated diseases. Microbial spoilage of foods. Mechanisms of microbial spoilage. Food ecosystems. Intrinsic, extrinsic factors influencing spoilage in food borne diseases. Microbiological quality of foods indices of sanitary quality. Quality assurance, hazard assessment. Control of contamination, inhibition of growth of microorganisms. Food spoilage and processing/fermentation; food biotechnology. Microbiology reference value for foods. Diseases of animals transmittable to man via anima food products.
FSB 301.1 GENETICS II
Mutations. Recombination in prokaryotes and viruses.  Sex-linked inheritance. Elements of human genetics. In-borne errors of metabolism; blood group polymorphisms; medico-legal genetics; pedigree analysis introductory cytogenetics. Introduction to population genetics. Genetic Engineering; Cloning and Recombinant DNA Technology.
MCB 309.2 INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE
The course is expected to give students an opportunity in public and private establishments (environmental, food, industrial and medical) during the second semester and the long vacation to learn and improve on their basic microbiological techniques, students on probation are not eligible for the scheme.
 
GES 300.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEUSHIP
The course discusses the concepts, history and the development of entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur qualities and characteristics. The entrepreneur and business environment. Identifying business opportunities, starting and developing new business ventures. Legal forms of business ownership. Feasibility studies. Roles of small and medium scale enterprise (SME) in the economy. Role of government on entrepreneurship. Business location and layout. Accounting for SME. Managing SME. Marketing SME. Risk management of SME. Success and failure factors of SME. Prospects and challenges of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, ethical behaviour in small business.
PSB 300.1 MYCOLOGY
Morphology, taxonomy, physiology, reproduction and ecological characteristics of various groups of fungi.
 
FOURTH YEAR
MCB 400.1 MICROBIAL GENETICS
A survey of the current status of microbial genetics (Bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi), including methods and findings in the areas of mutagenesis, induction, isolation biochemical characterisation of mutants. Adaptation, transformation, transduction and conjugation. General and specialised methods in microbial genetics.  Experiments with virulent phages, temperate phages and lysogenic phages. Fungal and other lower eukaryotic genetics.
MCB 401.2
INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY
Nature of industrial microbiology. Microorganisms of industrial importance. Aspects of the biology of industrial culture techniques and maintenance. Strain development and improvement. Media formulation and economics. Optimisation of fermentation processes. Fermenter design and operations. Patents and patent laws.
MCB 403.1 PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY
 The chemistry and mode of action of synthetic chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics. Production and synthesis of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Quality control of pharmaceutical products. Concepts of growth and death in microorganisms. The mode of action and assay of antimicrobial agents. Concepts of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance as related to microbial physiology. An overview of antimicrobial substances and disease control. Chemical nature and mode of action of disinfectants. Antimicrobial substances of microbial origin and their industrial production. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Pharmacological considerations in the administration of antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial substances from traditional medicinal plants. Problems associated with use of chemotherapeutic agents including drug resistance and allergy.
MCB 404.1 ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL
Microorganisms as reagents in quantitative analysis. Selection of test organisms for assay (antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, etc). Responses of microorganisms in assays. Obtaining and measuring of responses. Preparation of assay samples. Methods of assays. Interpretation of results. Aspects of quality control and safety. Plant and equipment sanitation. Microbiological standards and specification. Predictive microbiology.  General enumeration procedures – Aerobic plate count, DMC, MPN & Detection sampling plans and decision criteria.
MCB 405.2 PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Statistical applications to epidemiology. Nature of epidemiological investigations. Spectrum of infections. Herd immunity. Latency of infections. Multifactorial systems in epidemics. Zoonoses, antigenic drift. Biological products for immunisation. Recommended immunisation schedules. International control of infectious diseases.
GES 400.1 ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROJECT
The entrepreneurship project in Microbiology aims to afford the fourth year students the opportunity to individually or in a group, select a product(s) or service(s), conduct a feasibility study, design and develop the product, design its manufacturing system and marketing strategies, and determine the modalities for establishing and operating an enterprise based on the product.
 
MCB 406.2 MEDICAL VIROLOGY 
Attention will be given to viruses pathogenic to man and animals with emphasis on virulence, types of diseases produced and methods of control: AIDS. The bacteriophage and representative animal viruses will be studied. Methods of viral cultivation and identification with special reference to tissues culture techniques will be introduced.
 
MCB 407.2 PRINCIPLES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 
Features of biotechnology and its scientific basis. Fermentation and biotechnology. Primary and secondary metabolites in biotechnology. Control mechanism in microorganisms and manipulations in vitro and in vivo. General characteristics of microbial, plant and animal cells. Characteristics and functions of DNA and RNS is the cell. DNA sequencing. Structure of the chromosome. Protein biosynthesis. Brief review: replication, transcription and translation. The genetic code mutations including in-borne errors of metabolism. Abnormal haemoglobins. Bacterial genetics. Recombinant DNA and its application. Hybridomas. Applicants of DNA and gene cloning. Safety aspects of biotechnology and gene manipulations. Scale-up in biotechnology.
MCB 408.2 MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
Microbes and ecological theory. Physiological morphological and genetics adaptations of microorganisms to their environment. Microbial interactions; microorganisms in ecosystems and responses to stresses. Microbial bioconversions.
 
MCB 410.1 PATHOGENIC BACTERIOLOGY AND MYCOLOGY
Host-parasite relationship. Pathogenic microorganisms and disease. Virulence, spectrum and symptoms of infection, treatment and control. Methods of isolation of pathogens. Bacterial infections. Structure, reproduction and classification of pathogenic fungi and pathogenic actinomycetes; laboratory methods of study; pathology immunology and epidemiology of superficial/systemic mycoses and actinomycoses.
 
PSB 406.2 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
The structure, conformation and other properties of proteins with special reference to X-ray crystallography and other physical techniques. Polysaccharides, glycoproteins, cell-wall structure and related biological macromolecules. Structure and properties of DNA and RNA.
MCB 409.2 SEMINAR IN MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 
Emphasis of this course is on recent advances in Microbiology and Biotechnology. The course is expected to give the students the opportunity for independent imaginative thought and expression. Under the supervision of staff, the student will select a topic for detailed study using current literature. Marks are allocated as follows: 
 
1. Introduction         5%
2. Presentation
a. Illustration         10%
b. Mastery of topic         15%
3. Response to questions                       5%
4. Poise (dress, comportment) and      5%
Keeping within allocated time
5. Attendance         20%
6. Seminar write-up         40%
 
BCH 425.2 FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 
An introduction to the theory and application of physical and chemical methods for determining the constituents of food. Food processing, preservation and storage of traditional foods. Food nutrition, energy values of foods and energy expenditure by mammals. Nutritive value of foods.
MCB 402.0 RESEARCH PROJECT
This is the final year research project. It is aimed at investigating microbiological problems in any areas of microbiology and biotechnology with well-defined objectives. The work is written up as a project report (thesis) and is examined by a panel of external and internal examiners during an oral defense (examination).
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