Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology

Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology

Name of Department:                                Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology 
Name of Ag.Head Of Deparment:           Dr. N. O. Ezenobi
Contact E-mail:                        
Contact Phone Number(s):                      08037300729

COURSE DESCRIPTION FOR PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY

YEAR TWO              SECOND SEMESTER                  

PMB 241.2:    Introduction to Pharmaceutical Microbiology   3 Units

Historical development of microbiology, scope and its relevance to Pharmacy – Micro-organism and medicine; the discovery of micro-organisms; the role of micro-organisms in disease; the scope and relevance of Pharmaceutical microbiology; the future of Pharmaceutical microbiology.

Study of Microbial Structures – Microscopy; specimen preparations.

Presence and effects of micro-organisms on the environment – ubiquity; characteristics.

The viruses – General characteristics; human viruses (important human viruses and their properties); multiplication of human viruses; cultivation of viruses; purification and assay of viruses;

Bacterial cells – Cell structures; classification; properties; metabolism; nutrition; growth; factors influencing their growth; enumeration; identification; diseases; mechanisms of pathogenicity.

Fungal cells – Cell structures; classification; properties; metabolism; nutrition; growth; factors influencing their growth; enumeration; identification; diseases; mechanisms of pathogenicity.

Protozoa – Cell structures; classification; properties; metabolism; nutrition; growth; factors influencing their growth; enumeration; identification; diseases; mechanisms of pathogenicity.

Helminths – Cell structures; classification; properties; metabolism; nutrition; growth; factors influencing their growth; enumeration; identification; diseases; mechanisms of pathogenicity.

 

PMB 242.2:    Practical Pharmaceutical Microbiolog I                  1 Unit

Laboratory experiments to demonstrate some basic pharmaceutical microbiological principles and techniques. Isolation and characterization of common opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms as well as other techniques used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

 

 

YEAR THREE         FIRST SEMESTER

PMB 341.1:    Pharmaceutical Microbiology II      3 Units

Antimicrobial agents as disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives – Definitions; types; properties; factors affecting activities of antimicrobial agents; evaluation of the activity of such antimicrobial agents.

Evaluation of microbial contents of pharmaceutical preparations and products.

Microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical preparations - Spoilage (pharmaceutical ingredients susceptible to microbial attack, effect of microbial attack on Pharmaceutical products, factors affecting microbial spoilage of Pharmaceutical products); hazard to health; sources and control of contamination

Aseptic techniques - Principles and processes

Sterilization - Principles and processes; sterilization methods, etc.

Sterile preparations - Types of sterile products; quality control and quality assurance of sterile products (bioburden, sterility, pyrogen,

Industrial uses of micro-organisms - Production of solvents, antibiotics, steroids.

Good manufacturing practice (GMP).

Environmental Microbiology

 

PMB 342.1:    Practical Pharmaceutical Microbiology II 1 Unit

Practical exposure for topics covered in PMB 341.1. such as the basic principles and procedures for preparing sterile products, the preparation of water for injection, small volume injections, eye drops, eye lotions, intravenous fluids and bacterial vaccines. Sterilization and disinfection, sterility testing, etc.

 

YEAR FOUR                        FIRST SEMESTER                             

PMB 441.1:    Microbial Chemotherapy                 2 Units

Anti-infectives and chemotherapeutic agents – Definitions; sources; types of antibiotics – antibacterials; antifungals; antivirals; antiprotozoal.

Microbial genetics – Replication, transcription, translation, gene expression and genetic variation

Mechanism of action of antibiotics – Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis; inhibitors of protein synthesis; inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis; inhibitors of metabolic pathway etc.

Antimicrobial resistance - mechanism of resistance; drug resistance; multi-drug resistance; causes of resistance; consequences of resistance; prevention of resistance.

Evaluation of antimicrobial activities and antibiotic assays – sensitivity and resistance testing; broth dilution method; agar dilution method; disc diffusion method, ditch diffusion method; combination assays

 

PMB 442.1:    Practical Pharmaceutical Microbiology III             1 Unit

To provide practical exposure for topics covered in PMB 441.1. The methods used for microbiological assay of antibacterial agents, antifungal agents, etc. The evaluation of the activity of antimicrobial agents; evaluation of microbial contents of pharmaceutical preparations, products and processes.

 

 

YEAR FOUR                        SECOND SEMESTER                    

PMB 443.2:    Parasitology               2 Unit

Basic parasitology - Host-parasite relationship

Classification of parasitic organisms

Pathogenesis, Morphology, identification and treatment of blood and tissue protozoans such as Plasmodium species, trypanosoma species, Leishmania species.

Pathogenesis, Morphology, identification and treatment of intestinal protozoans such as Entamoeba histolytica; Giardia lamblia, urogenital protozoans such as Trichomonas vaginalis

Pathogenesis, Morphology, identification and treatment of helminths (intestinal helminths – roundworm, threadworms, hookworm, tapeworm, strongloidiasis, whipworm,etc)

Pathogenesis, Morphology, identification and treatment of helminths (tissue or visceral helminths – filariasis, Schistosomiasis, etc.

Veterinary parasites and control systems

 

YEAR FIVE              FIRST SEMESTER

PMB 541.1:    Immunology and Clinical Microbiology      2 Units

Overview of immunology, Mechanisms of disease pathogenicity, Clinical presentations of infectious diseases, Control of infection in the hospital and community

Microbial diseases discussed under the following sub-headings – definition; aetiological agent; pathogenesis; epidemiology; modes of transmission; symptoms and clinical presentations; lab diagnosis; treatment; prevention; the problem of chemotherapy.

Upper respiratory tract infections: sinusitis; tonsillitis; otitis media; rhinitis

Lower respiratory tract infections – pneumonia; tuberculosis; diphtheria; legionella; bronchitis

Gastrointestinal tract infections – typhoid fever; gastroenteritis

Skin and soft tissue infections – acne, folliculitis, carbuncle, skin abscess

CNS infections – meningitis

Blood infections - septicaemia

Urinary tract infections – uncomplicated UTI (cystitis); complicated UTI(pyelonephritis)

Sexually transmitted diseases – pelvic inflammatory disease, gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia

Fungal diseases – candidiasis, cutaneous mycosis, subcutaneous mycosis; systemic mycosis; opportunistic mycosis

Viral diseases – HIV/AIDS; herpes simplex; hepatitis, common cold; rabies; measles, problems of viral chemotherapy etc

 

YEAR FIVE              SECOND SEMESTER

PMB 542.2:    Immunology and Biotechnology                  2 Units

Introductory Immunology – Definition of terms: Immunity, antigens, antibodies, their reactions and applications,

Immune response – Specific (acquired) and non-specific (innate) immune response

Monoclonal antibodies – production and application;

Serological reactions – diagnostic, pharmaceutical and medical applications of serological reactions;

Hypersensitivity reactions – causes and types

Immune diseases – HIV/AIDS; autoimmune diseases e.g. rheumatoid arthritis; asthma

Tissue transplantation.

Blood and blood products - Properties and uses of whole blood and fractions; preservation of whole blood and blood fraction.

Immunological products – vaccines, immunosera – Production and quality control.

Immunological products – human immunoglobulins, in-vivo diagnostics – production and quality control.

Introduction to biotechnology

DNA, RNA, protein extraction techniques; stabilization and purification techniques

Analytical techniques – page and blotting techniques and immunoassays

Gene cloning

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

 

PHA 501.2:    Project            6 Units

Each student is expected to carry out research project supervised by an academic staff. Such project will be assigned at the beginning of the final year (500 level). The research result is presented, bound for grading after a project seminar presented by each student.

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